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Flashcards in Review Chapter 6 Deck (38)
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What is correspondence theory of truth

states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world.


What would you call a fact that is observable in principle, that is it could be observed if we could get ourselves into the right place at the right time

This is an empirical fact


What does an empirical Statement do?

This is a statement that assets an empirical fact (or set of empirical facts).


What is the coherence theory of truth?

This theory regards truth as coherence within some specified set of sentences, propositions or beliefs. There is no single set of such "logical universes", but rather an assortment of perspectives that are commonly discussed under this title.


What is the pragmatic theory of truth?

A statement or belief is true if and only if it leads to the successful solution of a real problem.


What is the process of determining whether or not a truth claim is true?

This is called verification


If you can show that a truth claim is true it can be verified; but in the same hand if you can show that it is false than it is ____



If you can't decided if a claim is true or false what is it called?



What is a general empirical statement?

Something dealing with statements about classes of objects and or events


What is a statistical empirical statement?

This makes a claim about a portion of a specific class.


What is a Universal empirical statement?

this is a statement about every member of some class.


What do you call a principle that lies at the basis of all knowledge claims, including empirical claims.

i.e: Every event must have a cause

These are foundational principles


What does strict proof mean? and what is an example?

This is a term usually used in civil law cases and, basically it means this. If the Claimant says the Defendant owes him a sum of money and, the Defendant says he doesn't owe any money and, he puts the Claimant to "Strict Proof". That means the Claimant will have to prove beyond all doubt the money is owed. He will have to show all the documentation associated with the dealings between them that the money is owed and that no money has been received.


Decide if the statement below is either Empirical or Non-Empirical

The democrats won the last election for governor of Massachusetts

Checking the facts about the most recent Massachusetts election will determine whether the statement is true.


Decide if the statement below is either Empirical or Non-Empirical

My children are hoping for a white christmas this year.

If you ask the kids directly it will determine if the claim is true


Decide if the statement below is either Empirical or Non-Empirical

St. Pauls Cathedral in London is one of the great architectural achievements of Wester Civilization

non-empirical. no amount of checking empirical facts—either about St. Paul’s Cathedral or about people’s beliefs about it—will determine the truth or falsity of this statement. it is an evaluation.


Human beings will not survive the destruction of the ozone layer

Empirical. The empirical facts that will determine whether this statement is true or false are not easy to obtain, although scientists claim that there is clear and mounting evidence that it is true. But nothing other than empirical evidence could determine the truth or falsity of this claim.


The sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180 degrees

non-empirical. This is an analytic statement that states one of the essential features of a triangle. if you thought you could determine its truth value by measuring the angles of a triangle with a protractor, you would be treating this as an empirical statement. But as any mathematics teacher would tell you, doing this would not get you any marks on a mathematics examination.


Paula Won the prize las year for the best student in school.

Empirical. Despite the fact that the award is given to the best student in the school, this statement does not endorse the fact that Paula received the award. it is a simple statement of an empirical fact.


Three out of four people make up 75 percent of the populatioin

non-empirical. Because 3 out of 4 people is arithmetically equivalent to 75 per cent of the population the sentence makes no empirical claim about facts.


An argument _________ Begs the question when its premises presupposes directly or indirectly the truth of its conclusion

Begs the quesiton


Paranormal activity is real because I have experienced what can only be described as paranormal activity.

This statement begs the question What makes it wrong?

The claim, “paranormal activity is real” is supported by the premise, “I have experienced what can only be described as paranormal activity.” The premise presupposes, or assumes, that the claim, “paranormal activity is real” is already true.


When does the fallacy of inconsistency arise?

When the argument contains implicitly or explicitly, a contradiction usually between two premises.


What is wrong with the following statement?

Mary is older than Gord
Gord is older than Mary

Neither statement by itself is a contradiction, but asserting them together amounts to a contradiction.


When does the fallacy of Equivocation arise?

When a term is used with more than one meaning within a single argument


What does this statement illustrate?

"Nosiy children are a real headache
An aspirin will make a headache go away
Therefore an aspirin will make children go away."

The fallacy of Equivocation


What is false Dichotomy?

dichotomy that is not jointly exhaustive (there are other alternatives), or that is not mutually exclusive (the alternatives overlap), or that is possibly neither. Note that the example given above is not mutually exclusive, since the test and the program could both be wrong.


What does it mean for something to be Exhaustive?

You can only have one or the other, no in between.

ie: you can be pregnant or not pregnant


What does it mean for something to be exclusive?

When the choice of one rules out the other(S)


When does the fallacy of false Dichotomy arise?

When the premise of an argument presents us with a choice between two alternatives and assumes that they are exhaustive or exclusive or both when in fact they are not.