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Flashcards in Review Chapter 8 Deck (11)
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1

What is the third criterion of a sound argument?

The premise should be adequate to support the conclusion

2

When Appealing to authority what are five things that must be considered to prove you have an adequate appeal?

1) The authority must be identified

2) The authority must be generally recognized by the experts in the field

3) The particular matter in support of which an authority is cited must lie within his or her field of expertise
i.e Doctor giving a astronaut advice

4) The field must be one in which there is genuine knowledge

5) There should be a consensus among the experts in the field regarding the particular matter in support of which the authority is cited

3

What is an appeal to anecdotal evidence?

could be considered to be a form of the “hasty generalization” fallacy. Also relevant is the “cum hoc ergo propter hoc” fallacy. appeal to authority – (1) An argument that gives evidence for a belief by referencing expert opinion
This is making a claim based also on personal experience in the matter. You could have a terrible time on vacation in mexico and make the claim "Mexico is a terrible place to travel for vacaiton."

4

If someone states their claim is true simply based on the fact that there is no evidence to state it is wrong this is what type of appeal?

An appeal to ignorance
i.e "I believe in astrology and always read my horoscope in the paper every day. I can't actually prove that its true but nobody can disprove it."

5

Define the fallacy of slipperly slope

in which a person asserts that some event must inevitably follow from another without any rational argument or demonstrable mechanism for the inevitability of the event in question.

Because this happens, a that will happen then this will happen, so on....

6

What is Post Hoc?

This fallacy is committed when it is argued that something occurs before some event must be its cause.

7

The following is an example of what fallacy?

The stove in your apartment was working perfectly until you moved in, but the next day the oven stopped working. It must be something you’re doing that has caused the problem.

Post Hoc

8

When is the fallacy of confusing cause and effect committed?

When an effect is identified as a cause and the cause is identified as the effect?

9

The following is an example of what fallacy?

According to a recent Gallup poll, married couples with no children have approxi mately 20 per cent more disposable income than married couples with children. This shows that it is affluence that causes declining birth rates.

Confusing cause and effect

10

How is the common cause fallacy committed?

When it is claimed that there is a casual relation between A and B when in fact both A and B are caused by a third factor C

11

The following is an example of what type of fallacy?

According to a recent Gallup poll, married couples with no children have approxi mately 20 per cent more disposable income than married couples with children. This shows that it is affluence that causes declining birth rates.

Common Cause