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1

What is Inference?

Inference is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true. The conclusion drawn is also called an idiomatic. The laws of valid inference are studied in the field of logic.

2

What is an inference indicator?

These are words that indicate that one thought is intended to Support (I.e to justify provide a reason fro provide evidence for or entail) another thought.

3

What are some common inference indicators?

Since
Thus
Implies
Consequently
Because
It follows that
Given that

4

When someone expresses an inference in words they do so by means of a statement. Define what a statement is

This is a sentence (i.e state of words) that is used to make a claim that is capable of being true or false. It sentence is not capable of being true or false then it is not a statement.

5

Define what an argument is

This is a set of statements that claims that one or more of those statements are true

6

Define what a premise is

premise is an assumption that something is true. In logic, an argument requires a set of (at least) two declarative sentences (or "propositions") known as the premises or premisses along with another declarative sentence (or "proposition") known as the conclusion.

Basically it is a set of statements that claims to be true provided the the evidence of the arguments

A statement whose truth is used to infer that of others

7

What is a conclusion

A proposition whose truth has been inferred on the basis of other propositions assembled with it in a logical argument.

8

How can you tell if something has logical strength?

An argument has logical strength when its premise, if true, actually provides support for its conclusion

9

How would you describe a deductive argument?

is an argument that is intended by the arguer to be (deductively) valid, that is, to provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion provided that the argument's premises (assumptions) are true.
This must be either true or false

10

How would you describe an inductive argument?

Unlike deductive arguments, inductive reasoning allows for the possibility that the conclusion is false, even if all of the premises are true. Instead of being valid or invalid, inductive arguments are either strong or weak, which describes how probable it is that the conclusion is true.

11

An argument that has both logical strength and true premises would be called what..?

A Sound Argument.

12

Sometimes when arguing you want to develop an argument with premises that you know are to be false. What would you call this type of argument?

A counterfactual Argument (At least on premises has to be a counterfactual statement)

13

There is a special kind of counterfactual argument, and it is called..?

Reduction Ad Absurdum

14

What does Reduction Ad Absurdum mean?

This means that a statement is proven to be true by assuming it to be false, and then deriving a contradiction from that assumption.

15

What are four very important critical thinking skills you should know how to use?

Interpretive Skills
Verification Skills
Reasoning Skills
Critical Thinking Skills

16

Define Logic

Logic is the sciences that studies the relationship between premises and conclusions with a view to determining when and to what extent the premises actually support the conclusions.

17

What are Normative Principles? What do they do?

Principles embedded in the governance assessment framework constitute the normative basis against which governance performance will be measured.

They function as standards for assessment or guides for action whereas descriptions merely attempt to accurately represent something.

18

From the Statement below explain
1) if it is an argument
2)if it is a conclusion

"You should go home next weekend because you promised your parents you would."

Yes this is an argument

Premise: you promised your parents you would go home this weekend
Conclusion: You should go home this weekend

19

From the Statement below explain
1) if it is an argument
2)if it is a conclusion
"His car skidded on the ice and hit a van in the middle of the intersection. The car was a write off, and the van suffered $3,000 in damage."

This is not an argument it is merely the description of an event.

20

From the Statement below explain
1) if it is an argument
2)if it is a conclusion
"My pursue with several hundred dollars in cash, my watch, and necklace have gone missing from my hotel room. The door was locked while I was out, and there's no sign of forced entry. It looks like someone on staff at this hotel is a thief"

This is an argument

Premise 1: My purse with my cash, my watch, and my necklace are missing from my hotel room.

Premise 2: The door of the room was locked while I was out.

Premise 3: There’s no sign of forced entry into the room.

Premise 4: Only someone working in the hotel could have entered the room without breaking in

Conclusion: It looks like someone on staff at the hotel stole theses items

21

From the Statement below explain
1) if it is an argument
2)if it is a conclusion

"It is obvious that no great leader every suffered from low self-esteem."

This is not an argument. This is just a statement that is not supported by any reason or evidence.

22

Judge the Truth or Falsity of the premise below, Indicate if the argument is sound.

Albany is in New York, New York is in the US. Therefore Albany is in the US.

Sound. however, if you did not know that albany is in new York, or that new York is in the United States, you should have answered that it is merely a logically strong argument.

23

Judge the Truth or Falsity of the premise below, Indicate if the argument is sound.

No one under the age of 18 is legally an adult. Katherine is only 15 years old. Katherine is not legally an adult.

Merely logically strong. Even if you knew that the first premise is true, since you don’t know who katherine is, it would be incorrect to say that the argument is sound

24

Judge the Truth or Falsity of the premise below, Indicate if the argument is sound.

Dogs make excellent companions. Cerberus is a dog, Therefore Cerberus is an excellent companion.

Merely logically strong. not all dogs are excellent companions, and this claim seems to be implicit in the first premise.

25

Judge the Truth or Falsity of the premise below, Indicate if the argument is sound.

Fez is north of Casablanca. Tangier is north of fez. Therefore, Tangier is north of Casablanca.

Sound. however, if you did not know that both premises are true, you should have answered that it is merely a logically strong argument.

26

Judge the Truth or Falsity of the premise below, Indicate if the argument is sound.

At this moment I am reading a book. If I am reading a book, I must be awake. Therefore I must be awake

Sound. however, if you did not interpret I as referring to yourself, the correct answer would be that it is merely a logically strong argument.

27

Judge the Truth or Falsity of the premise below, Indicate if the argument is sound.
No human being is immortal. Even the president is a human being. Therefore even the president is not immortal.

Sound. it is not necessary to know who the President is in order to know that he or she is a human being.

28

Judge the Truth or Falsity of the premise below, Indicate if the argument is sound.

A cat makes a good house pet. A tiger is a cat. There fore a tiger makes a good house pet.

Merely logically strong. Since the context indicates that the word cat is being used in a very broad sense, the first premise is obviously false.

29

Look through Self test 1.7

DO IT MOTHERFUCK!