Flashcards in Research & Program Evaluation Deck (122)

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1

## Define a Type II error.

###
Aka. beta error

When a researcher has accepted a null hypothesis (i.e., that there is no difference between an experimental group and a group not receiving any experimental treatment) when it is false

2

## Define a beta error.

###
Aka. Type II error

When a researcher has accepted a null hypothesis (i.e., that there is no difference between an experimental group and a group not receiving any experimental treatment) when it is false

3

## What error is made when a researcher has accepted a null hypothesis (i.e., that there is no difference between an experimental group and a group not receiving any experimental treatment) when it is false?

### Type II error or beta error

4

##
An experimenter wants to assess the effectiveness of a training course for improving SAT scores by comparing the pretest and posttest scores of a group of high school students. To analyze the data obtained in this study, the experimenter should use which statistical test?

A. Factorial ANOVA

B. Correlation

C. T-test

D. Chi-square

### C. T-test

5

## What statistical test should be used when comparing two means?

### T-test

6

## When should a T-test be used?

### When comparing two means

7

##
Parametric and non-parametric both:

A. Assume random assignment of samples to groups

B. Assume random selection of the sample from the population

C. Require a normally-shaped distribution of DV scores in the population

D. None of the above

### B. Assume random selection of the sample from the population

8

## What is a difference between experimental and quasi-experimental research?

### Random assignment is a requirement for experimental research. If you do not have random assignment, you have quasi-experimental research.

9

## What is the difference between parametric and non-parametric statistics?

### Parametric statistics make use of interval or ratio scales. Non-parametric statistics make use of nominal or ordinal scales.

10

##
You want to assess the effectiveness of a community intervention initiative aimed at educating young people about the dangers of drugs. Your assessment will most likely be a(n):

A. Single subject research design

B. Experimental research design

C. Evaluation research design

D. Longitudinal research design

### C. Evaluation research design (i.e., a program evaluation)

11

##
A counselor conducted a study intended to evaluate the effectiveness of ongoing group career counseling on the vocational maturity of high school sophomores. The study was begun in September and continued until June. This study is particularly susceptible to which of the following threats to the validity of an experiment?

A. Reactive effects of experimentation

B. Multiple treatment interference

C. Regression

D. Maturation

### D. Maturation

12

##
A counselor designs a study where two experimental groups and one control group complete pre- and post-experiment measures of self-concept. The subjects were not randomly assigned to the groups because of scheduling problems. Which of the following techniques is MOST appropriate for analyzing the resultant data?

A. Correlated t-tests

B. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test

C. Analysis of covariance

D. Analysis of variance

### C. Analysis of covariance

13

##
A researcher conducts a study to test the hypothesis that children who eat food with a lot of sugar are more hyperactive than children who eat food with no sugar. The study's independent variable is ____ and its dependent variable is ____:

A. Type of children; level of sugar consumed

B. Level of aggressiveness; level of sugar consumed

C. Level of sugar consumed; level of hyperactivity

D. Level of hyperactivity of children before eating; level of hyperactivity of children after eating

### C. Level of sugar consumed; level of hyperactivity

14

## Define independent variable.

### The variable that is hypothesized to bring about or predict change in the dependent variable

15

##
The scale of measurement that is characterized by an arbitrary zero point is:

A. Ordinal

B. Ratio

C. Nominal

D. Interval

### D. Interval

16

## Name the four scales of measurement.

###
1. Nominal

2. Ordinal

3. Interval

4. Ratio

17

## Describe the nominal scale of measurement.

### It divides variables into unordered categories

18

## Describe the ordinal scale of measurement.

### It divides variables into categories and also provides information on the order of those categories

19

## Describe the interval scale of measurement.

### Characterized by equal intervals between data points, but no absolute zero. For example, in the Fahrenheit temperature scale, zero degrees does not mean that there is absolutely no heat. Thus the zero point is arbitrary rather than absolute.

20

## Describe the ratio scale of measurement.

### Has the properties of order and equal intervals as well as the property of an absolute zero point

21

##
When assessing the effect of a pretest on the dependent variable in an experiment, which research design should you use?

A. Counterbalanced design

B. ABA design

C. Solomon four-group design

D. ABAB design

### C. Solomon four-group design

22

## Define the Solomon four-group design.

### An experimental design used to control the effects of pretesting on both the internal and the external validity of a research study by including the pretest as an independent variable

23

##
You are hired by a large insurance company to help improve sales. Two groups of employees are given a motivational pep talk that is either direct or indirect. Three groups are given either high doses, moderate doses, or low doses of a new drug designed to increase the performance of salespeople. Two groups attend a class in sales techniques that is taught either by an educator or an experienced salesperson. Afterwards, all subjects take a test of attitudes towards their jobs and all of their sales, in dollar amounts, are compared to previous levels. Which of the following is an independent variable in this study?

A. Sales in dollar amounts

B. Qualifications of the teacher of the class

C. Low dosage of the drug

D. Method for improving sales performance

### B. Qualifications of the teacher of the class

24

##
MANOVA is a statistical technique that is used in situations where:

A. There are multiple independent variables, each with multiple levels

B. There are multiple dependent variables and any number of independent variables

C. There are multiple dependent variables and only one independent variable

D. There are multiple dependent variables and multiple independent variables

### B. There are multiple dependent variables and any number of independent variables

25

##
The most valuable type of research is

a. always conducted using a factor analysis.

b. conducted using the chi-square.

c. the experiment, used to discover cause and-effect relationships.

d. the quasi-experiment.

### c. the experiment, used to discover cause and-effect relationships.

26

##
Experiments emphasize parsimony, which means

a. interpreting the results in the simplest way.

b. interpreting the results in the most complex manner.

c. interpreting the results using a correlation coefficient.

d. interpreting the results using a clinical interview.

### a. interpreting the results in the simplest way.

27

##
Occam’s Razor suggests that experimenters

a. interpret the results in the simplest manner.

b. interpret the results in the most complex manner.

c. interpret the results using a correlation coefficient.

d. interpret the results using a clinical interview.

### a. interpret the results in the simplest manner.

28

##
A counselor educator is running an experiment to test a new form of counseling. Unbeknownst to the experimenter one of the clients in the study is secretly seeing a gestalt therapist. This experiment

a. is parsimonious.

b. is an example of Occam’s Razor.

c. is confounded/flawed.

d. is valid and will most likely help the fi eld of counseling.

### c. is confounded/flawed.

29

##
Nondirective is to person-centered as

a. psychological testing is to counseling.

b. confounding is to experimenting.

c. appraisal is to research.

d. parsimony is to Occam’s Razor.

### d. parsimony is to Occam’s Razor.

30