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1

If the mean of a set of test scores is 50 and the standard deviation is 5, which of the following has the highest magnitude (assuming that the scores are normally distributed)?
A. A raw score of 60
B. A stanine score of 8
C. A z-score of +3.0
D. A T-score of 70

C. A z-score of +3.0

2

Explain z-scores.

A z-score directly indicates how many standard deviation units a score falls above or below the mean. For example, a z-score of +1.0 means that the score is one standard deviation above the mean and a z-score of -1.0 indicates that the score is one standard deviation below the mean.

3

Explain stanines.

Stanines have a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of approximately 2. Thus, a stanine score of 8 is 1.5 standard deviations above the mean.

4

Explain T-scores.

T-scores have a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. Thus, a T-score of 70 is 2 standard deviations above the mean.

5

What has a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of approximately 2?

Stanines

6

What has a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10?

T-score

7

Aptitude tests are to achievement tests as _____ is to ability to perform a task.
A. General ability
B. Ability to learn a task
C. Previous learning
D. Any of the above

B. Ability to learn a task

8

What does an aptitude test measure?

An individual's potential capacity for future learning

9

What does an achievement test measure?

What an individual has already learned (i.e., her/his developed capacity)

10

A person got a score of 85 on a norm-referenced test. This means that the person:
A. Insufficient information
B. Mastered 85% of the material covered in the test
C. Achieved a score of better than 83% of those taking the test
D. Answered 83 questions correctly

A. Insufficient information

11

Person A and Person B both took the same test. Person A got a score of 100 while Person B got a score of 75. In order for a counselor to determine whether the difference between their scores was because of "chance," the counselor would need to know which of the following characteristics of the test:
A. Standard error of measurement
B. Standard error of the mean
C. Mean
D. Standard deviation

A. Standard error of measurement

12

If internal consistency is of concern, what reliability coefficient will most likely be used?
A. A coefficient of equivalence
B. A coefficient of stability
C. A coefficient of determination
D. Coefficient alpha

D. Coefficient alpha

13

When is a coefficient alpha used?

To determine a test's internal consistency reliability by giving a test once to a single group of examinees. A special formula is used to determine the degree of inter-item consistency.

14

Define a coefficient of equivalence.

An alternate form of reliability that is measured when 2 equivalent forms of a test are administered to the same group of examinees at about the same time and their scores are correlated

15

Define a coefficient of stability.

When the same test is administered to the same group of examinees on 2 different occasions

16

Define the coefficient of determination.

The squared correlation between X and Y; it indicates how much of the variability in Y is accounted for by the variability in X

17

To determine a test's split-half reliability for items that are scored on a correct/incorrect scale, one would use which formula:
A. Coefficient alpha
B. Spearman-Brown prophesy formula
C. Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20)
D. Pearson r

C. Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20)

18

What is the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula used for?

To correct the split-half reliability coefficient by estimating what the reliability coefficient would have been had it been based on the full length of the test

19

What is the Pearson r and when is it used?

It is a correlation coefficient that can be used when both variables have been measured on an interval or ratio scale

20

A test of computer skills has a reliability coefficient of 0.75, a mean of 100, and a variance of 16. What is the test's standard error of measurement?
A. 2
B. 4
C. 8
D. 16

A. 2

21

What is the formula for calculating standard error of measurement?

Standard error of measurement (SEM) = (standard deviation of test scores) multiplied by (the square root of [1 minus the reliability coefficient])

22

You develop a test of "common-sense intelligence" and correlate scores on it with another test that purports to measure academic intelligence. Apparently, you wish to:
A. Obtain a high correlation to gain evidence of the test's convergent validity
B. Obtain a low correlation to gain evidence of the test's convergent validity
C. Obtain a high correlation to gain evidence of the test's divergent validity
D. Obtain a low correlation to gain evidence of the test's divergent validity

D. Obtain a low correlation to gain evidence of the test's divergent validity

23

Which item difficulty level is associated with the greatest differentiation between examinees of high and low ability?
A. +1.0
B. 0.50
C. 0.01
D. -0.50

B. 0.50

24

What does an item difficulty level of 0.05 mean?

It means that 50% of examinees answered the question correctly. Ideally, it will be those examinees with the greatest ability who answered the question correctly and those with the lowest ability who answered it incorrectly. You are best able to differentiate those with low ability from those with high ability with a difficulty level of 0.50.

25

Appraisal can be defined as

a. the process of assessing or estimating attributes.
b. testing which is always performed in a group setting.
c. testing which is always performed on a single individual.
d. a pencil and paper measurement of assessing attributes.

a. the process of assessing or estimating attributes.

26

A test can be defi ned as a systematic method of measuring a sample of behavior. Test format refers to the manner in which test items are presented. The format of an essay test is considered a(n) _______ format.

a. subjective.
b. objective.
c. very precise.
d. concise.

a. subjective.

27

The National Counselor Exam (NCE) is a(n) _______ test because the scoring procedure is specific.

a. subjective.
b. objective.
c. projective.
d. subtest.

b. objective.

28

A short answer test is a(n) _______ test.

a. objective.
b. culture free.
c. forced choice.
d. free choice.

d. free choice.

29

The NCE is a(n) _______ test.

a. free choice.
b. forced choice.
c. projective.
d. intelligence.

b. forced choice.

30

The _______ index indicates the percentage of individuals who answered each item correctly.

a. difficulty.
b. critical.
c. intelligence.
d. personal.

a. difficulty.