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Flashcards in Social & Cultural Foundations Deck (110)
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1

All of the following are true about counseling with gay clients except:
A. Referral to community resources is often important
B. Therapy should focus on the clients' experiences with social oppression
C. Minority gay clients tend to be more concerned about racial issues than issues related to their homosexuality
D. The issue of counselor-client similarity may be particularly important

B. Therapy should focus on the clients' experiences with social oppression

2

America has been called the most diverse country on the face of our planet. Counseling a client from a different social and/or cultural background is known as

a. cross-cultural counseling.
b. multicultural counseling.
c. intercultural counseling.
d. all of the above.

d. all of the above.

3

Culture refers to

a. customs shared by a group which distinguish it from other groups.
b. values shared by a group that are learned from others in the group.
c. attitudes, beliefs, art, and language which characterize members of a group.
d. all of the above.

d. all of the above.

4

Our culture is more diverse than in the past. Multicultural counselors often work with persons who are culturally different. This means the client

a. is culturally biased.
b. suffers from the diagnosis of cultural relativity.
c. belongs to a different culture from the helper.
d. presents problems which deal only with culturally charged issues.

c. belongs to a different culture from the helper.

5

In order to diagnose clients from a different culture

a. the counselor ideally will need some information regarding the specifics of the culture.
b. the counselor will find the DSM useless.
c. the counselor will find the ICD diagnosis useless.
d. NBCC ethics prohibit the use of DSM diagnosis when counseling clients from another culture.

a. the counselor ideally will need some information regarding the specifics of the culture.

6

In the United States, each socioeconomic group represents

a. a separate race.
b. a separate culture.
c. the silent middle class.
d. a separate national culture.

b. a separate culture.

7

Which therapist was not instrumental in the early years of the social psychology movement?

a. Freud
b. Durkheim
c. McDougall
d. Berne

d. Berne

8

_______ and _______ would say that regardless of culture, humans have an instinct to fight.

a. Maslow; Rogers
b. Ellis; Harper
c. Freud; Lorenz
d. Glasser; Rogers

c. Freud; Lorenz

9

_______ believe that aggression is learned. Thus, a child who witnesses aggressive behavior in adults may imitate the aggressive behavior.

a. Instinct theorists
b. Innate aggression theorists
c. Social learning theorists
d. Followers of Erik Erikson

c. Social learning theorists

10

The APGA, which became the AACD until 1992 and is now the ACA, contributed to the growth of cross-cultural counseling by

a. the 1972 formation of the Association for Non-White Concerns in Personnel and Guidance, later known as the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development.
b. the 1972 ethic which made it unethical to see culturally different clients without three hours of relevant graduate work in this area.
c. the 1972 ethic which required a 3,000-hour practicum in order to work with culturally different clients.
d. urging nonwhites to take graduate counseling courses.

a. the 1972 formation of the Association for Non-White Concerns in Personnel and Guidance, later known as the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development.

11

Daniel Levinson proposed a theory with several major life transitions. He

a. is the Father of Multicultural Counseling.
b. wrote the 1978 classic Seasons of a Man’s Life and the sequel Seasons of a Woman’s Life in 1997.
c. postulated a midlife crisis for men between ages 40–45 and for women approximately five years earlier.
d. b and c.

d. b and c.

12

The three factors which enhance interpersonal attraction are

a. assertiveness, anxiety, ego strength.
b. close proximity, physical attraction, similar beliefs.
c. culture, race, assertiveness.
d. ego strength, anxiety, race.

b. close proximity, physical attraction, similar beliefs.

13

The term contextualism implies that

a. multicultural counseling is the oldest subspecialty in the profession.
b. behavior must be assessed in the context of the culture in which the behavior occurs.
c. the notion of worldview is highly inaccurate.
d. projective tests are more accurate than objective measures when performing cross-cultural counseling.

b. behavior must be assessed in the context of the culture in which the behavior occurs.

14

Carol Gilligan was critical of Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development

a. as she felt it was too psychoanalytic.
b. as she felt it was too behavioristic.
c. as she felt it was not applicable to African Americans.
d. as she felt it was more applicable to males than females.

d. as she felt it was more applicable to males than females.

15

_______ helped to abet the multicultural counseling movement.

a. Arthur Jensen’s views on IQ testing (also known as Jensenism)
b. The civil rights movement
c. Jung’s feeling that all men and women from all cultures possess a collective unconscious
d. The Tarasoff Duty

b. The civil rights movement

16

When a counselor speaks of a probable outcome in a case, he or she is technically referring to

a. the prognosis.
b. the diagnosis.
c. the intervention.
d. attending behavior.

a. the prognosis.

17

When a counselor speaks of what he or she believes must transpire from a psychotherapeutic standpoint, he or she technically is referring to

a. recommendations.
b. the diagnosis.
c. the prognosis.
d. the notion of transference.

a. recommendations.

18

Some research suggests that very poor economic conditions correlate very highly with

a. passivity.
b. nonassertive behavior.
c. a and b.
d. aggression.

d. aggression.

19

A wealth of research demonstrates that

a. surprisingly enough, African Americans generally request Asian counselors.
b. surprisingly enough, Asians generally request African-American counselors.
c. in most instances, clients prefer a counselor of the same race and a similar cultural background.
d. in most instances, clients prefer a counselor of the same race, yet a different culture.

c. in most instances, clients prefer a counselor of the same race and a similar cultural background.

20

The frustration-aggression theory is associated with

a. Albert Ellis.
b. Robert Havighurst, who created the idea of the developmental task concept.
c. Eric Berne, the creator of transactional analysis (TA).
d. John Dollard and Neal Miller.

d. John Dollard and Neal Miller.

21

A popular balance theory in social psychology is _______ cognitive dissonance theory.

a. Dollard and Miller’s
b. Crites and Roe’s
c. Festinger’s
d. Holland and Super’s

c. Festinger’s

22

Culture is really a set of rules, procedures, ideas, and values shared by members of a society. Culture is said to be normative. This implies that

a. one culture will have norms which differ only slightly from another.
b. culture excludes customs.
c. culture provides individuals with standards of conduct.
d. culture is never socially learned.

c. culture provides individuals with standards of conduct.

23

A statistical norm measures actual conduct, while a cultural norm

a. describes how people are supposed to act.
b. has little to do with expectations.
c. is irrelevant when counseling a client.
d. all of the above.

a. describes how people are supposed to act.

24

Mores are beliefs

a. regarding the rightness or wrongness of behavior.
b. which should be the central focus in multicultural counseling.
c. that are conscious decisions made by persons in power.
d. that are identical with the folkways in the culture.

a. regarding the rightness or wrongness of behavior.

25

_______ was the fi rst pioneer to focus heavily on sociocultural issues.
a. Mark Savickas—a major fi gure in career counseling
b. Alfred Adler—the Father of Individual Psychology
c. Maxie Maultsby—the Father of Rational Behavior Therapy (RBT)
d. Frank Parsons—the Father of Guidance, who wrote Choosing a Vocation

d. Frank Parsons—the Father of Guidance, who wrote Choosing a Vocation

26

A counselor who is part of a research study will be counseling clients in the Polar Regions and then at a point near the equator. Her primary concern will be

a. universal culture.
b. national culture.
c. ecological culture.
d. b and c.

d. b and c.

27

Biological similarities and sameness are indicated by

a. ecological culture.
b. mores.
c. regional and national culture.
d. universal culture.

d. universal culture.

28

Early vocalization in infants
a. is more complex in African-American babies.
b. is more complex in Caucasian babies.
c. is nearly identical in all cultures around the globe.
d. is the fi nest indicator of elementary school performance.

c. is nearly identical in all cultures around the globe.

29

In the 1920s, Emory Bogardus developed a social distance scale which evaluated

a. socioeconomic trends.
b. how an individual felt toward other ethnic groups.
c. disadvantaged youth.
d. language barriers between Blacks and Asians.

b. how an individual felt toward other ethnic groups.

30

According to the foot-in-the-door technique, which has two distinct steps, a counselor who needs to make a home visit to a resistant client’s home

a. should conduct the interview from the porch.
b. should double-bind the client.
c. should ask to come in the home.
d. should exude accurate empathy, but never ask to enter the home.

c. should ask to come in the home.