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Flashcards in Human Growth & Development Deck (110)
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1

The developmental tasks associated with Robert Havighurst occur throughout:
A. Childhood only
B. Childhood and adolescence only
C. Childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood only
D. The entire life span

D. The entire life span

2

Describe Havighurst's 6 time frames for developmental tasks.

1. Infancy and early childhood
2. Middle childhood
3. Adolescence
4. Early adulthood
5. Middle age
6. Later maturity

3

Who publishes the DSM-IV-TR?
A. the American Psychiatric Association
B. the American Psychological Association
C. the International Psychiatric Association
D. the International Psychological Association

A. the American Psychiatric Association

4

The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales would most likely be used as an assessment for which of the following reasons:
A. To assess for mental impairment
B. To test intelligence
C. To measure improvement in social skills
D. To assess mental flexibility

A. To assess for mental impairment

5

According to Piaget, there are four underlying processes that facilitate cognitive development. The four processes are:
A. Sensori-motor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations
B. Schema, assimilation, accommodation, and equilibrium
C. Conservation, assimilation, accommodation, and abstract reasoning
D. Automatic operations, concrete operations, formal operations, and abstract reasoning

B. Schema, assimilation, accommodation, and equilibrium

6

Name Piaget's four stages of cognitive development.

Sensori-motor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations

7

According to Piaget, what are schema?

An individual's self-constructed mental structures

8

According to Piaget, what is assimilation?

The fitting of new stimuli into existing schema

9

According to Piaget, what is accommodation?

Creating new schema or modifying old schema

10

According to Piaget, what is equilibrium?

Balancing assimilation and accommodation

11

Freud’s stages are psychosexual while Erik Erikson’s stages are

a. psychometric.
b. psychodiagnostic.
c. psychopharmacological.
d. psychosocial.

d. psychosocial.

12

In Freudian theory instincts are emphasized. Erik Erikson is an ego psychologist. Ego psychologists

a. emphasize id processes.
b. refute the concept of the superego.
c. believe in man’s powers of reasoning to control behavior.
d. are sometimes known as radical behaviorists.

c. believe in man’s powers of reasoning to control behavior.

13

The only psychoanalyst who created a developmental theory which encompasses the entire life span was

a. Erik Erikson.
b. Milton H. Erickson.
c. A. A. Brill.
d. Jean Piaget.

a. Erik Erikson.

14

The statement, “the ego is dependent on the id,” would most likely refl ect the work of

a. Erik Erikson.
b. Sigmund Freud.
c. Jay Haley.
d. Arnold Lazarus, William Perry, and Robert Kegan.

b. Sigmund Freud.

15

Jean Piaget’s theory has four stages. The correct order from stage 1 to stage 4 is
a. formal operations, concrete operations, preoperations, sensorimotor.
b. formal operations, preoperations, concrete operations, sensorimotor.
c. sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations.
d. concrete operations, sensorimotor, preoperations, formal operations.

c. sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations.

16

Some behavioral scientists have been critical of the Swiss child psychologist Jean Piaget’s developmental research inasmuch as

a. he utilized the t test too frequently.
b. he failed to check for type 1 or alpha errors.
c. he worked primarily with minority children.
d. his findings were often derived from observing his own children.

d. his findings were often derived from observing his own children.

17

A tall skinny pitcher of water is emptied into a small squatty pitcher. A child indicates that she feels the small pitcher has less water. The child has not yet mastered

a. symbolic schema.
b. conservation.
c. androgynous psychosocial issues.
d. trust versus mistrust.

b. conservation.

18

In Piagetian literature, conservation would most likely refer to

a. volume or mass.
b. defenses of the ego.
c. the sensorimotor intelligence stage.
d. a specifi c psychosexual stage of life.

a. volume or mass.

19

A child masters conservation in the Piagetian stage known as

a. formal operations—12 years and older.
b. concrete operations—ages 7 to 11.
c. preoperations—ages 2 to 7.
d. sensorimotor intelligence—birth to 2 years.

b. concrete operations—ages 7 to 11.

20

_______ expanded on Piaget’s conceptualization of moral development.

a. Erik Erikson
b. The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky
c. Lawrence Kohlberg
d. John B. Watson

c. Lawrence Kohlberg

21

According to Piaget, a child masters the concept of reversibility in the third stage, known as concrete operations or concrete operational thought. This notion suggests

a. that heavier objects are more diffi cult for a child to lift.
b. the child is ambidextrous.
c. the child is more cognizant of mass than weight.
d. one can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape.

d. one can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape.

22

During a thunderstorm, a 6-year-old child in Piaget’s stage of preoperational thought (stage 2) says, “The rain is following me.” This is an example of

a. egocentrism.
b. conservation.
c. centration.
d. abstract thought.

a. egocentrism.

23

Lawrence Kohlberg suggested

a. a single level of morality.
b. two levels of morality.
c. three levels of morality.
d. preoperational thought as the basis for all morality.

c. three levels of morality.

24

The Heinz story is to Kohlberg’s theory as

a. a brick is to a house.
b. Freud is to Jung.
c. the Menninger Clinic is to biofeedback.
d. a typing test is to the level of typing skill mastered.

d. a typing test is to the level of typing skill mastered.

25

The term identity crisis comes from the work of

a. counselors who stress RS involvement issues with clients.
b. Erikson.
c. Adler.
d. Jung.

b. Erikson.

26

Kohlberg’s three levels of morality are

a. preconventional, conventional, postconventional.
b. formal, preformal, self-accepted.
c. self-accepted, other directed, authority directed.
d. preconventional, formal, authority directed.

a. preconventional, conventional, postconventional.

27

Trust versus mistrust is

a. an Adlerian notion of morality.
b. Erik Erikson’s fi rst stage of psychosocial development.
c. essentially equivalent to Piaget’s concept of egocentrism.
d. the basis of morality according to Kohlberg.

b. Erik Erikson’s fi rst stage of psychosocial development.

28

A person who has successfully mastered Erikson’s fi rst seven stages would be ready to enter Erikson’s final or eighth stage,

a. generativity versus stagnation.
b. initiative versus guilt.
c. identity crisis of the later years.
d. integrity versus despair.

d. integrity versus despair.

29

In Kohlberg’s fi rst or preconventional level, the individual’s moral behavior is guided by

a. psychosexual urges.
b. consequences.
c. periodic fugue states.
d. counterconditioning.

b. consequences.

30

Kohlberg’s second level of morality is known as conventional morality. This level is characterized by

a. psychosexual urges.
b. a desire to live up to society’s expectations.
c. a desire to conform.
d. b and c.

d. b and c.