Who was Joseph Wolpe?
He developed a paradigm known as "systematic desensitization"
What is the most important concept in Freud's theory?
The unconscious mind
Define reaction formation.
One of Freud's ego defense mechanisms that occurs when a person can't accept a given impulse and thus behaves in the opposite manner.
- Pleasure principle, libido, instincts
- Present at birth and never matures
- Operates mainly out of awareness to satisfy instinctual needs according to the pleasure principle
- Chaotic, has no sense of time
- Conscience, the ego ideal
- Judges behaviors as right or wrong
- More concerned with the ideal than what is real
- Composed of values, morals, and ideals of parents, caretakers, and society
According to Freud, what leads to the development of the superego?
Successful resolution of the Oedipus complex
The "talking cure", an emotional release linked to a need to release unconscious conflicts
What is the false denial of desire for something sought but not acquired? When an individual denigrates and feigns disdain for that which she/he could not attain?
Sour grapes rationalization
Define manifest content.
According to Freud, the surface meaning of a dream
How does Freud explain the topographic notion regarding the mind's depth?
The unconscious, the preconscious, and the conscious (iceberg analogy)
What is Freud's ego defense mechanism that occurs when an impulse is unleashed at a safe target? The prototype example would be when the man who is furious with his boss but is afraid to show it comes home and kicks the family dog.
- Greek god of love
Define the unconscious mind.
According to Freud, it is the part of the mind that is composed of material which is normally unknown or hidden from an individual.
What is the main criticism of Freud?
His theories are difficult to test from a scientific standpoint
What is Freud's ego defense mechanism that is simply an intellectual excuse to minimize hurt feelings? For example, a student who says, "I'm glad I didn't get good grades. Only nerds get good grades." will tend to interpret her thoughts and feelings in a positive or favorable manner. An individual can either underrate a reward (sour grapes) or overrate a reward (sweet lemon) to protect the self from a bruised ego.
What is the female equivalent of the Oedipus complex?
The Electra complex
- Greek word for death
- Used to describe a death wish (aka. death instinct)
According to Freud, what is the part of the mind that includes everything an individual is aware of in the immediate environment?
The conscious mind
Define latent content.
According to Freud, the hidden meaning of a dream
Name Freud's ego defense mechanism similar to repression, except that it is a conscious act. For example, an individual who says, "I refuse to think about it."
- Another word for catharsis
- The "talking cure"
- Symptom relief as a result of talking about traumatic events in therapy
One of Freud's ego defense mechanisms in which an individual attempts to develop or overdevelop a positive trait to make up for a limitation (i.e., a perceived inferiority). The person secretly hopes that others will focus on the positive rather than the negative factors.
Who created individual psychology?
What supposedly occurs when you perceive something unconsciously and it thus has an impact on your behavior?
According to Freud, what are dreams?
- "Royal road to the unconscious mind"
- Composed of a surface meaning (manifest content) and a hidden meaning (latent content)
Define sweet lemon rationalization.
When an individual tells you how wonderful a distasteful set of circumstances really is
What is John Broadus Watson credited with?
- Little Albert
- Pioneered American behaviorism
Who was credited with creating transactional analysis?
According to Freud, what is incest referred to as?
It is present when a person acts out an unconscious impulse in a socially acceptable way. For example, a very aggressive person might pursue a career in boxing, wrestling, or football.