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Flashcards in Research And Program Evaluation Deck (75)
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What is positivism?

And objective truth exists and can only be understood if directly observable or measurable. It is closely tied to quantitative research


What is post – positivism?

Shares many of the characteristics of positivism, such as the idea that there is a universal truth but the parts by saying that this truth can only be approximated because of inherent error's present when measuring reality. The concept of measurement error in terms of validity and reliability is emphasized. Post positivism tends to be more prevalent and quantitative research designs.


What is constructivism?

Also known as interpretivism, it differs from both positivism and post positivism because it contends that there are multiple realities or perspectives for any given phenomenon. Truth differs for individuals and is an internal manifestation, as opposed to positivism and post positivism, which exerts the truth is external to the individual. Used in many of today's qualitative qualitative research methods.


What is the critical /ideological paradigm?

It centers on researchers taking a proactive role and confronting the social structure and conditions facing oppressed or underprivileged groups. It's tied to qualitative research design.


Which study more than any other, led to construction of the Belmont report and hastened the call for informed consent, right to withdraw, and guidelines for use of deception in research studies?

The Tuskegee syphilis study


What was the Willowbrook study?

When a school for children with mental disabilities got informed consent from parents to enroll their children and inject them with the hepatitis virus. The parents were never informed of their right to decline the injection for their children, nor were they told a long time effects of hepatitis


What was the Jewish chronic disease hospital study?

healthy and unhealthy patients were injected with live cancer cells. Participants never gave informed consent and were not told they were being injected with cancer cells.


What was the Milgram obedience study?

Milligram was investigating blind obedience and used deception without debriefing. The use of shocks was central to this study.


What was the Belmont report in research ethics?

It held researchers to standards that we would consider ethical today


What is the Nuremberg code?

A set of ethical principles for research using humans guarantees research participants choice to be involved in a research study and the right to terminate their participation at anytime.


What is title 45 (CFR) code of federal regulations 46?

It outlines research participants rights and researchers responsibilities in conducting research


What is an institutional review board?

Any institution receiving federal funding must sponsor an IRB in order to approve proposals to conduct research with human subjects. It consists of five members.


What are some of the general current guidelines for applying to an institutional review board?

Proposals must typically outline who the participants will be, how they will be sought, what risks participants may face, how those risks will be mitigated, and compliance with informed consent practices.


What is a variable?

A construct that has at least two levels or categories and, therefore, can vary.


What is an independent variable (IV)?

A construct that is manipulated or controlled in some way.


What is a dependent variable (DV)?

The outcome variable that is influenced by an independent variable


What is an extraneous variable?

Other variables that could affect the dependent variable


What is a confounding variable?

A special case of extraneous variables that the experimenter has not controlled for in the research design but that also affects the dependent variable. So the independent variable and a confounding variable may create change at the same time.


What is a research question?

A statement that identifies what a research study hopes to examine


What are the three major types of research questions?

Relational research questions

Descriptive research questions

Causal research questions


What do relational research questions do?

They examine the relationship between variables.


What do descriptive research questions do?

They examine and describe what already exists.


What to causal research questions do?

They attempt to determine the cause and effect relationship among variables.


What is a research hypothesis?

A testable, concise statement involving the expected relationship between two or more variables.


What are the three types of hypotheses?

Research hypothesis,

null hypothesis,

alternative hypothesis


What is the difference between a nondirectional hypothesis and a directional hypothesis?

A nondirectional hypothesis does not show whether there is a positive or a negative relationship between two or more variables.

Whereas a directional hypothesis shows that there is a positive or negative relationship between two or more variables.


What is a null hypothesis?

(H0) A statement that there is no relationship between an IV and DV.


What does it mean to reject a null hypothesis?

It means you are supporting the theory that generated the research hypothesis.


What is an alternative hypothesis?

It is developed in order to be eliminated and addresses the question "what else could be causing the results?"


What is hypothesis testing?

Involves the decision making process of determining if the null hypothesis is to be excepted or rejected.