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Flashcards in Helping Relationships Deck (189)
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What is wellness?

It is a holistic concept that refers to a persons overall healthy state of being. Wellness means being not only physically healthy but also mentally, psychologically, and spiritually healthy.


What are the five factors in the indivisible self model of wellness?

That essential self which includes spirituality, self-care, gender identity, and cultural identity

The social self which includes friendship and love

The creative self which includes thinking, emotions, control, positive humor, and work.

The physical self which includes exercise and nutrition

The coping self which includes realistic beliefs, stress management, self worth, and leisure


What is the therapeutic alliance?

The working alliance or therapeutic relationship between the client and the counselor.

It is considered one of the most important predictors of whether clients will benefit, regardless of the theoretical orientation of the counselor and the type of client problem.


What did Carl Rogers propose were the six necessary and sufficient conditions for client change?

Psychological contacts between the counselor and client. There needs to be a relationship.

Client incongruence between experience and awareness which leaves and feeling vulnerable and anxious.

Counselor congruence within the therapeutic relationship and possibly uses self disclosure to establish and build rapport with the client.

Counselor uses unconditional positive regard and demonstrating nonjudgmental attitude toward the client and unconditionally accepts the client.

The counselor uses empathy to understand the clients worldview and communicates this to the client in order to reinforce unconditional positive regard.

Clients perception of the relationship with the counselor.


What are the three into related elements composing the therapeutic relationship?

The working alliance, transference relationship, and the real relationship


The "collaboration for a change" in the working alliance involves three constructs. What are they?

Agreement on the goals of counseling

Agreement on the tasks that will help the client achieve his or her goals

The psychological bond between the counselor and the client


What are three theories of why clients are resistant in therapy?

Anxiety control - proposed by Freud, resistance is due to re-pression of unsavory or anxiety causing memories that are part of their unconscious.

Noncompliance - resistance is displayed when clients do not complete their homework. The three common reasons are
a) the lack of necessary skills or knowledge to follow through on the assignment
b) negative expectations or cognition of the client about therapeutic outcome of process
c)undesirable environmental conditions.

Negative social influence - caused by a negative dynamic in the counselor – client relationship or a clients desire for power or control but in the counseling relationship


What are the five factors in the five factor model of personality?







What assessment is used to measure the five factors of personality?

The NEO Personality inventory revised


What are the stages of change, also referred to as the trans theoretical model of behavioral change?

It's conceptualizes the client change process as a series of six progressive stages that developed over time.








What are the different consultation models?

Triadic-dependent model

Collaborative – dependent model

Collaborative – interdependent model

Kaplan's mental health consultation model

Process consultation model

Behavioral consultation model


What is the triadic – dependent model a consultation?

When a consultant seeks advice from an expert, (the consultant) about a third-party, (usually the client).


What is the collaborative – dependent model of consultation?

The consultee still relies on the consultant for help while both parties contribute their unique background and skills to resolve the problem. It is a collaboration where both parties possess distinctive abilities and information that are critical to reaching a solution.


What is the collaborative – interdependent model of consultation?

There is no expert in this model. Everyone who participates in the consultation process holds equal authority and depends on the others for their specialized knowledge.


What is Caplan's mental health consultation model?

The model involves consultation between two professionals about a current work problem. The over arching goal of this approach is to improve the consultees ability to deal with current and future work problems and to improve job performance.

There are four types of mental health consultation:

Client centered case consultation

Consultee centered case consultation

Program centered administrative consultation

Consultee centered administrative consultation


What is the process consultation model?

It emphasizes the establishment and development of a relationship between the consultant and the client. Consultants can help clients to take pro active steps to deal with their problems and improve their situation.


What is the behavioral consultation model?

It is based on operant conditioning and involves a collegial relationship between the consultant and consulted. The consultant is viewed as the authority figure who assumes primary responsibility for the outcome of the consultation. The primary focus of this model is on behavior modification.


What is determinism?

Contends that peoples actions are predetermined by forces of which they are unaware. It is a central theme in psychoanalytic theory.


In psychoanalytic theory there are three kinds of conscious mind. What are they?

Conscious mind – aware of everything occurring in the present

Preconscious mind - combines characteristics of both the conscious and unconscious minds

Unconscious mind – the most nebulous part of a persons mind. It contains memories, instincts, and drives that are exceedingly difficult to bring to a persons conscious awareness.


What is psychoanalysis known for?

Making the unknown known. Increasing clients awareness of their unconscious motivations. Help clients address and resolve the psychosexual developmental stages, learn effective coping mechanisms, and become more insightful about themselves.


What are some psychoanalytic techniques?

Free association - clients are encouraged to speak about early life memories without thinking and to say anything that occurs to them.

Dream analysis - frayed considered them to be the royal road to the unconscious and that dreams represent unmet wishes and desires.

Interpretation - where the psychoanalyst interprets the meaning of clients thoughts, emotions, behavior, and dreams to increase their self awareness and understanding of their unconscious desires.


In Psychoanalysis, is transference a good or bad thing?

Transference is encouraged because it gives clients an emotional release and allows the psychoanalyst to interpret the behavior and raise the clients self awareness.


What are the neo – Freudian approaches?

Ego psychology

Interpersonal psychoanalysis

Object relations theory

Self psychology


What theory is Alfred Adler known for?

Individual psychology, also known as Adlerian psychology.


Which part of the personality operates on the reality principle?

The ego


What is individual psychology known for?

That clients lifestyles, cognitive fictions, and family constellations help them develop insight into their own lives and change their lifestyles to one that promotes greater growth and wholeness.


What are some concepts tied to Adlerian theory?

Inferiority complex

Birth order





What is a phenomenological philosophy?

Asserted by Adler that it was not merely early events that influence a persons life style but rather the person's perception of those events.


What are fictions in regards to individual psychology?

Peoples beliefs about themselves and others that are false. Fictions can lead to negative behaviors.


What are seven Adlerian techniques?

A lifestyle analysis


Acting as if

Asking the question

Spitting in the clients soup

Catching oneself

Pushbutton technique