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Flashcards in Social And Cultural Diversity Deck (112)
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What is low-context communication in regards to nonverbal communication?

It refers to individuals communicating primarily verbally to express thoughts and feelings.


What is cultural feminism?

Workplace environment, politics, sexual identity, and sexual harassment of women were the particular concentration of this movement.


What is gender schema theory and who proposed it?

Sandra Bem. She proposed children learn from society what it means to be male or female. As children begin to internalize these assumptions, they adjust their behavior to conform to society's gender norms and expectations.


What is resilience?

It is defined as a persons ability to maintain equilibrium, I just to do a stressful or disturbing circumstances, or to bounce back toward a level of positive functioning in spite of adverse situations.


What three laws has the US government put in place to protect citizens with disabilities?

Rehabilitation act of 1973
- prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities in federally sponsored or federal programs.

Americans with disabilities act of 1990 - prohibits discrimination of persons with disabilities in employment, public services, telecommunications, and accommodations.

Individuals with disabilities education improvement act of 2004 - provision of non-discriminatory education process for children with disabilities in the least restrictive environment.


What are proxemics in regards to nonverbal communication?

The use of personal physical distance.


What are the four stages of spiritual identity development?

Pre-awareness – individuals do not view spirituality as salient in their lives.

Awakening – refers to the notion that individuals become aware of themselves as spiritual beings after a spiritual event or conflict.

Recognition – spirituality is integrated throughout life experiences. Individuals begin to develop a spiritual practice.

Integration – Spirituality is synthesized with the overall self-concept during this final status.


What is sexism?

The oppression of individuals on the basis of gender and it stems from the belief that males are the superior gender and there some more competent and deserving of power.


What are the three types of racial interactions according to the racial interaction theory?

Parallel interactions – both individuals are at similar racial identity statuses, resulting in more harmonious race-based communications.

Regressive interactions – one individual is at a lower racial identity status then the other individual.

Progressive interactions – when individual of a higher social power exhibiting a more advanced racial identity status then the other individual


What is social feminism?

Focuses on the whole of society, which pertains to particulars such as women's roles and careers, race, capitalism in a patriarchal context, Socio economic status, ethnicity, culture, and the financial realm.


What does double or triple jeopardy in regards to oppression mean?

Discrimination faced by individuals because of their possession of multiple minority statuses, such as being a racial minority and a female or being a racial minority, female, and having a disability.


What is an external locus of control?

Refers to the notion that consequences results by chance, outside of an individual's control


What is radical feminism?

Focuses on discrimination against women in capitalism, particularly white middle-class women, and was the building block for feminist therapy. Emerging in the 1960s and continuing through the 1980s.


What is colorism?

It refers to the judgment of worth based on how closely an individual skin color approximates that of Whites.


What is an emic perspective in multicultural counseling competencies?

It refers to using counseling approaches that are specific to a clients culture. Counselors using and emic perspective would more likely use indigenous healing practices and look for alternative explanation of symptoms based on specific cultural expressions.


How do phobias relate to prejudice?

Fear usually causes prejudicial attitudes. For example, homophobia is the fear and hatred of same-sex couples that results in prejudice and oppression.


In which acculturation model are individuals rejecting the cultural values and customs of both cultures?

The marginalization model


What is oppression? What are the two types of oppression?

The condition of being subject to a group of people who have access to social power and authority.

Oppression can occur by force or by deprivation.

An example of force would be imposing a role, experience, or conditioner on someone.
And example of deprivation would be not providing someone with the necessary experience or resource.


What is chronemics in regards to nonverbal communication?

It's how individuals conceptualize and act toward time.


What are three characteristics observed in persons with higher resilience?

Hopeful attitudes and worldviews, having a supportive network of family, friends, and so forth, and having a connected and safe community with sufficient services available


What are the two white racial identity development models?

Helm's white racial identity model and and the Racial Interaction Theory

And Hardimans's model is White Racial Identity Development


What is classism?

A form of discrimination found it on a persons social status


What defines working class status?

Live paycheck to paycheck, working to get immediate needs and bills met.


What is ethnicity?

It refers to persons identification with a group of people who have a similar social or cultural background.


What is the homoprejudice?

Prejudice is more the cause of discrimination than an actual phobia per se


What defines underclass status?

Generally have an under paying job or I'm not employed. Struggle greatly to maintain basic needs, such as food, housing, healthcare, and even access to transportation. Can be considered to be at the poverty level.


What is overt racism?

And more obvious and focused prejudice. it is never unintentional or unconscious.


What are the four interpersonal distance zones?

Intimate distance (0 to 18 inches)

Personal distance (18 inches to 4 feet)

Social distance (4 feet to 12 feet)

Public distance (12 feet or more)


What are the three levels of oppression?

Primary oppression – obvious acts by both force and deprivation.

Secondary oppression – oppressive ask in which individuals do not get directly involved but from which they may benefit.

Tertiary oppression – when minority group members adopt majority opinion so they fit in this is also known as internalized oppression


What is heteronormativity?

Societal expectations that individuals adhere to gender roles that complement those of the opposite biological sex. It involves an assumption that there is a binary gender system and that heterosexuality is the normal orientation.