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1

MOA of aflatoxin and hepatocellular carcinoma

induces p53 mutation of G:C -> T:A transversion

2

Ochronosis

a black pigments evident in the skin due to alkaptonuria (seen in ears, nose, cheecks, etc)

3

MOA of Neisseria virulence factor

IgA protease- finds to Fc portion preventing

4

What is the molecular change seen in HbS?

a charged glutamic acid residue is replaced by a nonpolar hydrophobic valine residue at the 6thAA position in the beta subunit -> hydrophobic part of the beta chain
- causes aggregation of the hemoglobin molecule under anoxic conditions
- this is bc a hydrophobic part of the beta chin fits in a complemetary site on the alpha chain of another Hb molecule

5

How do you calculate the total filtration rate of a substance A?

Inulin clearance X plasma concentration of substance A

6

How do you calculate the Net Excretion rate of Substance A?

= CL inulin X Plasma conc of ubstance A - tubular reabsorption of substance A

7

What are the lipoxins and what do hey do?

Lipoxin A4 and B4:
-vasodilation
- inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis
- stimulation of monocyte adhesion

8

What are the more common NNRTIs?

Nevirapine
Efavirenz
Delavirdine

9

What metabolic processes take place solely in the mitochondria?

1. Fatty acid oxidation
2. Acetyl-CoA production
3. TCA
4. Oxidative phosphorylation

10

What metabolic processes take place in the cytpolasm ONLY?

1. Glycolysis
2. FA synthesis
3. HMP Shunt
4. Protein synthesis: RER
5. Steroid syndthesis (SER)
6. Cholesterol synthesis

11

Which metabolic rxns take place in both cytosol and mitochondria?

Heme synthesis
Urea Cycle
Gluconeogenesis

12

What are the sites of the HMP shunt?

1. Lactating mammary glands
2. Liver
3. Adrenal cortez
4. RBCs

13

Benzoate

binds amino acid and leads to excretion, use in hyperammonemia

14

Phenylbutyrate

binds amino acid and leads to excretion- use in hyperammonemia

15

How is retinoic acid a teratogen?

- it alters Hox gene expression which is responisble for skeletal morphology
- limbs are thus in the wrong place or get synpolydactyly (fusion of digits)

16

What does the surface ectoderm become? (8)

1. Lens
2. Lining of oral cavity
3. Rathke's pouch -> anterior pituitary
4. Sensory organs of ear
5. Olfactory epithelium
6. Epidermis
7. Anal canal below the pectinate line
8. Sweat, parotid and mammary glands

17

What does the neuroectoderm become?

1. Brain- neurohypophysis, CNS neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, pineal gland
2. Retina and optic nerve
3. Spinal cord

18

What do the neural crest cells become?

1. PNS: DRG, cranial nerves, celiac ganglion, schwann cells, ANS
2. Melanocytes
3. Chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla
4. Parafollicular C cells of thyroid
5. Pia and arrachnoid
6. Bones of the skull
7. Odontoblasts
8. Aorticopulmonary septum

19

What does the mesoderm give rise to?

1. Muscle and bone, connective tissue
2. Serous linings of body cavities
3. Spleen (from foregut mesentary)
4. CV
5. Lymphatics
6. Blood
7. Wall of gut tube
8. wall of bladder
9. Urethra, kidney, vagina, adrenal cortex, dermis testes

20

What are mesodermal defects?

VACTERL
Vertebral defects
Anal atresia
Cardiac defects
Tracheo-esophageal fistulas
Renal defects
Limb defects (bone and mm)

21

What are endoderm derivatives?

1. Gut tube epithelium (anal canal above the pectinate line) and luminal derivatives:
- lungs
- liver
- gallbladder
- pancreas
- eustachian tube
- thymus
- parathyroid
- thyroid folicular cells

22

Umbilical arteries and veins are derived from what?

Allantois

23

Cleft lip mechanism

failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal processes

24

Cleft palate mechanism

failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum and/or the median palatine process

25

what is associated with epispadias?

exstrophy of the bladder

26

Dip or haploid: primary spermatocyte

Dipolid: 2N

27

DHT: early and late

early: causes differentiation of penis, scrotum and prostate
Late: prostate growth, balding, sebaceous gland activity

28

What layers of the endometrium are shed during menstration?

Stratum spongiosum and stratum compactum

29

Mechanism behind eclampsia

placental ischemia due to impaired vasodilation of spiral arteries

30

what is the cause of mortality in HELLP syndrome?

cerebral hemorrhage or ARDS