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Flashcards in Renal and Resp Deck (33)
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1

what is the enzyme that converts 25-OH vit D to 1,25 OH Vit D?

1 alpha hydroxylase

2

What causes a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis?

HARD ASS
Hyperalimentation
Addisonsdisease
Renal tubular acidosis
Diarrhea
Acetazolamid
Spironolactin/Saline infusion

3

RTA type 1

defect in collecting tubules ability to excrete H, pH >5.5, failure of H secretion by the alpha intercalated cells
- increase in urine pH increases the risk for CaPO4 kidney stones

4

RTA tpe 2

defect in proximal tubule's ability to reabsorb HCO3, urine pH <5.5
- increased risk for hypophosphatemic rickets

5

spike and dope ammearance with supepithelial deposits

EM

6

what does the LM show in minimal change disease?

normal LM
em = foot process efacement

7

what is type 1 MPGN assoc w?

HBV HCV and SBE SLE

8

how do you distinguish between IgA nephropathy (Bergers) and PSGN?

IgA = days after infection
PSGN = weeks after infection, have a decrease in C3

9

glomerulonephritis, deafness, eye problems

Alport syndrome
cant see, cant pee cant hear
spit basement membrane

10

how does GBM lose its polyanions in Minimal change disease?

due to a decrase in sialic acids

11

how do you prevent kidney stone formation?

1. HIgh urine citrate concentration (binds to free Ca)
2. Fluids!

12

what are the urease positive bugs that can cause kidney stones?

-Proteus
- Klebsiella
- Staph

13

where does renal cell carcinoma originate from?

proximal tubule cells

14

how does RCC spread?

it invades renal vein then ICV and spreads hematogenously

15

genetics of WILMs tumor??

WT1 tumor suppressor gene
- contains embryonic glomerular structures

16

WAGR complex

wilms tumor
aniridia
genitourinary malformation
retardatoin: mentor and motor

17

thyroidization of kidney

seen in chronic pyelonephritis, tubules contain eosinophilic casts

18

what drugs are assoc with AIN?

-diuretics
- penicillin derivatives
- sulfonamides
- rifampin
- NSAIDs
usually 1-2 weeks after beginning drugs

19

What is ARPKD assoc with?

congenital hepatic fibrosis

20

in what pt population should you avoid loops?

gout!

21

what patient population should you avoid with ACE inhibitors?

Bilateral renal artery stenosis

22

tissue type of type I and II pneumocytes?

type I; squamous
type II: cuboidal

23

whats CCSP?

clara cell secretory protein: inhibits neutrophil recruitment and activation

24

calculation for physiologic dead space

Vd = Vt (PaCO2 - PeCO2)/PaCO2

25

BMPR2 gene

mutation behind primary pulmonary hypertension
- normally functions to inhibit vascular smooth mm proliferation

26

what is the activating mutation in adenocarcinoma of the lung?

k-ras

27

what lung cancer is assoc with hypertrophic osteoarhtropathy?

Adenocarcinoma- clubbin

28

what is a chylothorax?

lymphatic pleural effusion
- due to thoracic duct injury from trauma malignancy
- milky appearing and increased TGs

29

What is tryptase?

an enzyme released by mast cell degranulation and is specific to mast cells

30

What do cystic fibrosis patients usually die from?

pneumonia