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Flashcards in Problem 3 - measuring personality traits Deck (22)
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1

empirical strategy

-large number of items of certain domain
-> deciding which are appropriate
-based solely on the observed, empirical links between the items and some variable that is assumed to be a good indicator of the trait
-content is irrelevant, correlation is needed between behavior and trait
-psychologist starts with clear idea in mind as to which trait is to be measured

2

personality traits

-differences among individuals
-tendency to behave, think or feel
-in some conceptually related ways
-across a variety of relevant situations
-over a long period of time

3

structured personality inventories

-good reliability
-good content validity

4

unstructured personality inventories

-projective techniques

5

Rorschach Inkblot test

-10 inkblot patterns
-

6

Thematic apperception task

-31 cards, ambiguous situations
-low test-retest reliability
-over-diagnosis

7

cos empirical study

-very different sets of items might be selected depending on the nature and size of the sample of individuals that is used as the source of empirical data

8

pros empirical study

-items may not have a obvious relevance to a trait

9

factor analytic strategy

-way of sorting correlated items together into the same category (same factor)
-researcher does not necessairly have any specific plan as to which trait should be measured
-> identity of traits is revealed by analysis

10

pros factor analysis

....

11

cons factor analysis

-if item pool does not contain a wide variety if items
- then product of factor analysis will be an inventory that measures a rather limited set of traits

12

The rational strategy

-writing down items specifically for the purpose of assessing each trait that is to be measured
-figuring out which of the items are the 'best' ones
-> choosing items that are most strongly correlated to each other

13

cons rational strategy

-resulting scales can only be as good as the sets of items that the psychologist had written to measure the traits
-choosing items that are most strongly correlated to each other

14

pro rational strategy

-simpler
-easier
-does not require a large existing item pool

15

comparing of 3 strategies

-rational strategy -> higher validity than factor analysis

16

lexical hypothesis

-people will talk about personality traits that they view as having important consequences in their lives
-over time , words that describe important traits should become established in every language
-then factor analysis -> find major groups of personality traits

17

lexical studies and Big5

...

18

five factor model - NEO personality inventory

...

19

catell

..

20

HEXACO

...

21

phrenology

-first attempt for personality assessment
-Gall und Spurzheim
-head size etc

22

galton

...