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Flashcards in Problem 1 Deck (21)
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1

advantages self-reports

-higher motivation to talk about oneself
-inexpensive, quick
-identification with the question
-easy to interpret
-large number of participants in short time
-direct insight unto unique personal information

2

disadvantages self-reports

-structure of questions affects outcome
-response biases
-people try to present themselves in a more favorable light
-acquiescent responding: agreeing with responses without considering the question
-extreme responding
-false picture of oneself
-

3

informant reports advantages

-more objective
-compare informant judgements with self-report
-compare ratings of different observers
-informants often observed individual in many different situations
-easy if used online
-no socially desirable response bias

4

informant reports disadvantages

-expensive, time and money
-difficult, uncooperative informants
-response biases can occur
-fundamental attribution error

5

Behavioral measures advantages

-situation specific traits can be assessed
-fewer response biases than with questionnaires
-2 potential settings: lab or field

6

Behavioral measures disadvantages

-unpractical
-ethical issues
-developing and assessing code schemas
-great deal of effort
-in laboratory -> too artificial
-demand characteristics
-link between specific behavior and specific characteristic may not be direct

7

EAR - Electronically Activated Recorder

- recorder that tracks ambient sounds in people's environment by recording 30s snippets every 12.5 min over a period of 4 days

8

EAR advantages

-not influenced by participants perceptions .
-attends to social phenomena that participants are typically not aware of when filling in a questionnaire
-language use can reveal psy. info about the speaker
-naturalistic settings
-determine degree of stability in people'a everyday social environment
-EAR not particularly distracting not significant impact on participants social behaviors

9

EAR disadvantages

-ethical and legal questions
-secondary participants: are recorded without being directly involved in the study
-data collection and preparation is time consuming and labor intensive

10

Biodata ( life outcome data)

-records of a person's life which seem likely to be relevant to an individual's personality
-example: cell phone bill, GPA, speeding tickets

11

Biodata advantage

-objective indicator

12

Biodata disadvantages

-particular outcome might be influenced by other traits or variety of circumstances that are unrelated to one's personality
-ethical concerns

13

cue validity

-how well the cues represent underlying construct
example: organizing desk -> does it present real conscientiousness?

14

cue utilization

?

15

mechanisms linking individuals to environments (4)

1) self directed identity claims
2) other-directed identity claims
3) interior behavioral residue
4) exterior behavioral residue

16

self-directed identity claims

-symbolic statements made by the occupants for their own benefits
-intended to reinforce self-view

17

other-directed identity claims

-symbols that have shared meanings to make statements to others about how they would like to be regarded

18

Interior behavioral residue

-physical traces of activities conducted in the environment
-act frequency approach to personality: someone who is high on a trait performs more acts that are prototypical of that trait

19

exterior behavioral residue

-residue of behaviors performed by the individual entirely outside of those immediate surroundings

20

Preconceptions informant reports (4)

1) time consuming
2) expensive
3) informants won't cooperate
4) Informant data are not valid

21

measurements for accuracy of self perceptions (3)

1) consistency with objective mesures
2) consistency with others' perceptions
3) Meta accuracy