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1

Neurotransmitters influencing behavior - Cloninger's Theory

Dopamine
Seretonin
norepinephrine/noradrenaline

2

Dopamine

-response to pleasurable, exciting stimuli
-signals of reward
-high levels of dopamine -> high levels of Novelty Seeking
-novelty seeking -> excitability, impulsiveness, extravagance, disorderliness

-parkinson
-cocain

3

Seretonin

-inhibits response to harmful, unpleasant stimuli
-high levels of seretonin -> low levels of Harm Avoidance
-harm avoidance -> worry, pessimism, fear, shyness, fatigability

-antidepressants like Prozac increases Seretonin to inhibit the transmission of punishment signals resulting in less negative emotions

4

Norepinephrine/ noradrenaline

-inhibits response to stimuli that have previously been associated with pleasure
-high levels of Norepinephrine -> low reward dependence
-reward dependence -> sentimentality, warm communication, dependence

5

Jeffrey Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory

-suggested that regions of brain work together as mechanisms that underly personality
-differences among activity of systems -> basis of important personality dimensions

6

Jeffrey Gray's 3 systems

1) The behavioral activations system
2) The behavioral inhibition system
3) Flight or fight system

7

The behavioral activation system

-go system
-regions of brain responsible for receiving signals which indicate that rewards are being expressed
-encourages pursuit of rewards
-people differ in tendency to be impulsive and seek pleasure+ excitement
-similar to Novelty seeking by Cloninger

8

The behavioral inhibition system

-stop system
-brain areas receiving signals which indicate that punishments are experienced
-similar to Harm avoidance by Cloninger

9

Flight or fight system

-brain regions responsible for motivating extreme reactions in response to extremely threatening situations

10

Eysneck's theory

-proposed a theory involving 2 major dimensions of personality
-later a third dimension was added
-Extraversion
-Neuroticism
-Psychoticism

11

Extraversion VS Introversion
Eysneck

-the strength of reactions to stimuli depends on the arousability of the brain
Extraverted people -> prefer to experience strong sensations
-enjoy bright colors, loud noises etc
-enjoy meeting and interacting with lots of people

12

Ascending Reticular Activation System (ARAS)
Eysenck

-Eysenck believed that individual differences in Extraversion were governed by this brain mechanism
-system located in brain stem
-works as filter that regulates amount of stimulation that is admitted to brain from nervous system

13

Ascending Reticular Actication System (ARAS) - Extraverts

Eysenck

-ARAS admits little stimulation
-making one feel under-aroused
-thus seeking stimulation
-opposite for Introverts

14

Neuroticism VS. Emotional Stability
Eysenck

-Eysneck believed that if one's Limbic system is overwhelmed by stressful stimuli -> tends to have a neurotic personality
-neurotic people tend to feel great deal of worry and nervousness in response to problems

15

Psychoticism

-aggressiveness, manipulation, tough-mindedness, risk taking, irresponsibility, impulsivity
-Eysencl suggested that persons high in Psychoticism -> high levels of hormone testosterone
-> low levels of mono-amine oxidase (MAO)

16

comparing Gray's and Eysenck's dimensions

-Gray's Behavioral Activation system -> related to Eysenck's Extraversion
-Behavioral Inhibition system -> Neuroticism
-Fight or Flight system -> Psychoticism

17

Zuckermanns Model

-he summarized 5 factors believed to represent basic dimensions of personality/temperament
-Activity
-Sociability
-Impulsive sensation seeking
-Aggression
-Neuroticism-Anxiety
-> each dimension is caused by own set of complex interactions among brain structures, neurotransmitters and hormones

18

Lemon Juice task

-support for Eysencks Theory
-dropping lemon juice on tongues of participants
-measuring amount of salvia produced
-> introverts perceived it more strongly

19

Hormones influencing personality

Testosteron
Cortisol
Oxytocin

20

Testosteron

-higher levels -> tend to be more aggressive/violent
-levels can be influenced by prenatally exposure to testosterone
-usually 10x higher in males
-fraternities study

21

Cortisol

-released by adrenal cortex
-prepares body for action in response to stress
-effects: increase in blood pressure, blood sugar and suppression of immune system
-in some cases, individuals with little cortisol release tend to be somewhat emotionally insensitive (males only)
-neuroticism associated with higher levels of stress hormone

22

Oxytocin

-produced in Hypothalamus
-released by pituitary gland
-released when giving birth, breastfeeding, orgasm
-associated with emotional bonding (mother and child)
-men also have oxytocin
-students were more trusting and trustworthy -> higher oxytocin levels

23

trust study - oxytocin

-students who were more trusting in others/more trustworthy -> had higher levels of oxytocin

24

the four humours and personality

-humours -> fluids in our body
-blood: cheerful temperament
-black bile: depressive temperament
-yellow bile: angry
-Phlegm: calm

-> idea remained until Pavlov suggested 4 kinds of temperament

25

sheldons 3 body types

-endomorph-> fat, digestive system= cheerfulness, sociability, relaxedness

-ectomorph -> skin and nervous system
-shy, sensitive, intellectual

-mesomorph -> muscles, activity level , dominance , assertiveness (Bestimmtheit), adventurous

-> his findings were biased

26

oxytocin nasal spray

-oxytocin through nasal spray -> manipulating levels of neuropeptides in brain
-a single dose -> reduces negative reactions to faces that had been paired with electric shocks increases trust

27

Oxytocin dampens responses in..

-amygdala (which reacts to potential social threats)
-hypothalamus

28

Rs 53576

53...53343 -> gang in pech
-> associated with responses to SOCIAL SUPPORT
- A allele (Arschlöcher) -> associated with reduced responsiveness to social support received in anticipation of stress
-> more stressed and thus lower tendency to seek social support

-G allele (Guten) -> less cortisol secretion -> more oxytocin in response to social support -> less stressed and thus higher tendency to seek social support

29

Rs 2254...

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