Politics in Europe and Imperialism in Africa (1860-1914) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Politics in Europe and Imperialism in Africa (1860-1914) Deck (22)
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What are Mass Politics?

the participation, in increasingly aggressive yet unstable ways, of the masses in the governing if european nations


Mass Politics in Great Britain

-1860: Britain already felt mass politics


Great Reform Bill of 1832

-the threat of violence from the masses caused this
-it changed the electoral process in England and enfranchised most of the adult, male middle class


Chartism (1837-1842)

-demonstrated the degree to which the lower-middle and working classes desired further reform
-Chartists organized massive demonstrations


People's Charter petition called for...

-universal manhood suffrage
-annual parliaments
-voting by secret ballot
-equal electoral districts
-abolition of property qualifications
-payment of members of parliament


Causes of New Imperialism

-need for raw materials
-need for new markets to sell manufactured goods
-technological innovations encouraged adventures
-nationality that unified european nations
-Political Elite competed for fame and glory through conquest
-P.E. wanted support of the newly politicized and enfranchised masses


Effects of People's Charter

-if enacted, it would have had the effect of creating a completely democratic House of Commons
-parliament rejected the charter on numerous occasions


Reform Bill of 1867

-Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative) said reform was inevitable
-the bill doubled amount of people eligible to vote and extended it to lower middle class
-conservatives regulated working hours and conditions


Reform Bill of 1884

-William Gladstone passed the bill
-it extended the right to vote to 2/3 of males
-primary education was available to all
-military and civil service was more democratic


Midlothian Campaign

-1879: Gladstone embarked on political campaign (Liberal)
-Disraeli countered with "Church, Monarchy and Empire" (conservative)


Paris Commune

-France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian ended Napoleon's III Second Empire
-people of Paris set up own democratic government (commune)
-they were crushed in 1871


France's Divided Rule

-monarchists initially ruled gvmt of 3rd Republic
-1870: france was ruled by an elected liberal government
-1880: conservative nationalists supported an attempted coup by General George Boulanger


Boulanger Affair

-General George Boulanger's attempted coup in France
-it failed but underscored the fragility of french democracy and the volatility of mass politics in France


Kulturkampf (war for civilization)

-Bismarck restricted religious freedom of Catholics in Germany
-he did it to appeal the strong sense of nationalism
-the ultimate result was to revive and strengthen the catholic political party (Roman Catholic Center Party)


Bismarck's Defeat

-1878: repealed much of the anti-catholic legislation in order to get catholic support for his war against german socialist party
-he was unable to remove socialists so he tried to undermine their working class political base by passing a system of social insurance
-socialists continue & Bismarck was dismissed by William II


Mass Politics in Austria-Hungary

the introduction of universal manhood suffrage in 1907 made Austria-Hungary so hard to govern that the emperor began bypassing the parliament and ruling by decree


Mass Politics in Russia

-mass politics were terrorism
-radical groups like The People's Will carried out acts of violent opposition (like bombing Alexander II)



-Alex II successor's Alex III, waged war on liberalism and democracy
-he began the program to standardize language and religion throughout Russian empire


Events that led to the Scramble For Africa

-British takeover of the sues canal
-belgium's aggressive expansion in the Congo


Britain's control of Egypt led to

-British expansion farther south to provide better security for Egypt
-British support for french expansion into northwest Africa in return for France's acceptance of British occupation in Egypt


Berlin Conference of 1885

-Belgians explored Congo, french expanded into Western Africa and Bismarck claimed parts of Eastern Africa
-at the conference representatives established free trade zones and set up guidelines for partitioning of Africa


Guidelines for Partition of Africa

-nation needed to establish enough physical presence to control and develop a territory before it could be claimed
-claimants must treat Africans humanely