World War I and Extreme Politics (1870-1918) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in World War I and Extreme Politics (1870-1918) Deck (20)
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International Working Men's Association

-Marx helped found it
-loose coalition of unions and political parties
-replaced by Second International in 1889


Fabian Society

-socialist organization that counseled against revolution
-goal was a society in which the parts of the economy that were crucial to survival and comfort should be owned by the state and regulated by experts employed by the government


Social Democrats

-In Germany led by August Bebel
-most successful Socialist party in Europe
-revisionist socialism urged socialists to cooperate with Bourgeois liberals in order to earn immediate gains for the working class


Phases of Women's Suffrage Movement

-pioneering phase: suffrage agitation focused on the reform act of 1867
-period of relative dormancy from 1870 to 1905
-period of militancy: campaigned for a more women's rights


Anarchist activity

-people under more impressive regimes turn to anarchism
-urged the elimination of state authority that oppressed freedom through general strikes and killing government officials like P. McKinley


Ultranationalism and Anti-Semites

-urged that political theories and parties that put class solidarity ahead of loyalty to the nation threatened civilization
-this merged with European suspicion of Jews (anti-Semitism)



-A movement for the creation of an independent state for Jews
-The World Zionist Organization was formed in 1897


Causes of World War I

-nationalities problem: 10 ethnicities in Austria-Hungary
-Rise of Germany & Alliances: triple alliance, triple entente
-Anglo-German rivalry: bc of Germany's rise
-assassination of Archduke
-German military planning: Schlieffen Plan


Triple alliance

-Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy
-Bismarck sought security here


Triple entente

-Britain, France and Russia


Schlieffen Plan

-Germany was sure that war with triple entente was inevitable
-strategy for a two front war of a military thrust westward toward Paris if Russia mobilized in the east
-occurred in 1914


Changes on the homefront

-governments to direct control of industries vital to war
-Labor unions relaxed working hours & conditions
-Women were drawn into industrial workforce


Zimmerman Note

-triggered american entry into war
-a diplomatic correspondence of dubious origin revealing a supposed deal between Germany and Mexico


National Trade Unions Congress

Organization that joined all the labor unions of the country together for political action
-supported the Labour Party (ran working class candidates in British elections)


Russian Revolution

-tsar to abdicated & new gvmt (Mensheviks) continued war effort
-second revolution brought Lenin (Bolshevik) to power
-they saw the war as a battle between bourgeoisie fighting over power to exploit proletariat


Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

-Bolsheviks decided to abandon the war and work within Russia
-signed the treaty surrendering Poland, Ukraine, Finland and Baltic provinces to Germany


Members at the Peace Negotiations in Paris

-France: Georges Clemenceau wants to ensure Germany would never threaten France again
-United States: Woodrow Wilson had bold plans for a new Europe
-Britain: David Lloyd George was a mediator


Treaty of Versailles

-germans are forced to pay $5 billion annually
-New independent nations were set up in Eastern Europe
-Germany was to take full blame for the war
-Germany was stripped of all its overseas colonies
-Alsace & Lorraine were returned to France
-allies could occupy German territories on the Rhine
-Germany's forces were limited to 100,000 soldiers


Artistic Movements

-expressionism: depicted emotional and psychological stress
(The Scream by Edvard Munch)
-abstractionism: analyzed essence of perception& experience
(Woman with a Guitar by George Braque)


Changes to Science

-Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity
-Max Planck's Quantum Theory of Physics
-Werner Heisenurg's Uncertainty Principle