The Second Industrial Revolution (1820-1900) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Second Industrial Revolution (1820-1900) Deck (11)
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1

Factory System

-in order to supervise labor
-workers came to a central location and worked at the machines under manager supervision
-employed technique of division of labor

2

Division of Labor

Where formerly complex task that required knowledge and skill were broken into a series of simple tasks aided by machines

3

Effects of Division of Labor

-replaced skilled craftsmen with unskilled labor
-increased volume manufacturers could produce
-more women and children in workforce
-decreased number of workers needed

4

Iron and Steel

-new machines increased demand for iron, guns, and ammunition
-Bessemer Process was a way to manufacture steel cheaper and in larger quantities; it increased the supply of iron and steel

5

Second Industrial Revolution

Characterized by large scale iron and steel production, steam engine and the development of the railway system

6

Coal

-coal mines provided most important fuel
-demand increased even further because of the large amount that steam engines required a lot

7

Steam

-increased scale and pace of heavy industry
-perfected by Thomas Newcomen and James Watt
-used to drive machinery

8

Electricity

-electric generators were used to power a wide variety of small and large scale factories and mills

9

Four Major Industries

-iron and steel industry
-coal industry
-steam power industry
-railways

10

Why did Great Britain industrialize first?

-well-developed commercial economy
-extensive river system to transport goods
-it was rich in coal and iron deposits
-no internal tariffs to inhibit trade
-uniform and stable monetary/banking system

11

Artistic Movements (in order)

-realism: Gustav Courbet
-impressionism: Manet, Degas, Monet
-postimpressionism: van Gogh's Starry Night