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Flashcards in The Scientific Revolution (1600s) Deck (22)
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Old Science

Based on Greek philosophers
Qualitative, based on observations.
Understand nature through logic and reason.

1

Scholasticism

Infused old science into Christianity
- derived knowledge from ancient texts (Aristotle)

2

Old Science: Medicine

Galen's 4 humors theory

3

Reasons for change

Renaissance interest in nature expands past art.
Countries become more competitive during exploration (requires star charts)
The church has a new calendar (Gregorian calendar) developed.

4

Copernicus

Develops heliocentric theory (alarmed the church)
Claims planets rotate in perfect circles.
Writes "On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres"
Copernicanism spread

5

"On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres"

Author: Copernicus
Published: 1543
Refutes the idea of crystalline spheres.
Explains heliocentric theory.
Describes retrograde motion.
Springboard for "natural philosophers"

6

Heliocentric

The theory that the sun is the center of the universe.

7

Brahe

Believed in the geocentric theory
Made and recorded all his observations
Had an apprentice named Kepler

8

Kepler

Loosely heliocentric
Uses Brahe's observations to discover that orbits are elliptical.
Kepler's Laws:
1. Planets moved in an ellipse
2. Planets speed depended on location from sun
3. Mathematical description of relationship between sun and planets

9

Galileo

Patronized by the Medici family.
Claims that nature can be described through math (quantitative science)
Advocated Copernican theory.
Challenged ideas of solar system with telescope.

10

Trial of Galileo

(1633) Galileo is charged with heresy and defying the church.
Galileo recants and is put under house arrest.
Mistakes acknowledged in 1992...

11

Principia Mathematica

Author: Sir Isaac Newton
Synthesizes Newtonian physics
Emphasizes the 3 laws of motion and gravity.

12

Newtonian View of the Universe

The universe is a finely tuned machine made by God.
humans are to reason by the laws of that machine.
However, he believed God would break the laws to repair the machine.

13

Francis Bacon

The father of empiricism.
Develops inductive reasoning, like the scientific method.
Believed that real science had to improve human life.

14

Instauratio Magna

Means Great Restoration in Latin
Renewal to human knowledge and understandings.

15

Rene Descartes

Mathematician, analytical geometry.
Claimed that every intellectual assertion was objected to systematic doubt.
Presents deductive reasoning.
Discourse on Method: very skeptical

16

"Cogito, ergo sum"

"I think therefore I am."
--Descartes

17

Discourse on Method

Author: Descartes
Addresses deductive reasoning
Valued math in science.

18

Dualism

Everything in nature has a non-physical mind and a physical body.
One realm can not address or assess the other.
Science is only the physical realm and thus should be secular.

19

Hermeticism

Taught that the world was infused with a single spirit that could be explored through math and magic

20

Neoplatonism

Located reality in a world of spirit rather than in the physical world we experience

21

Newton

Focused on solving mystery of planetary motion with calculus
Universal gravitation: every particle of matter was drawn to every other particle.