Flashcards in The Scientific Revolution (1600s) Deck (22)
Based on Greek philosophers
Qualitative, based on observations.
Understand nature through logic and reason.
Infused old science into Christianity
- derived knowledge from ancient texts (Aristotle)
Old Science: Medicine
Galen's 4 humors theory
Reasons for change
Renaissance interest in nature expands past art.
Countries become more competitive during exploration (requires star charts)
The church has a new calendar (Gregorian calendar) developed.
Develops heliocentric theory (alarmed the church)
Claims planets rotate in perfect circles.
Writes "On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres"
"On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres"
Refutes the idea of crystalline spheres.
Explains heliocentric theory.
Describes retrograde motion.
Springboard for "natural philosophers"
The theory that the sun is the center of the universe.
Believed in the geocentric theory
Made and recorded all his observations
Had an apprentice named Kepler
Uses Brahe's observations to discover that orbits are elliptical.
1. Planets moved in an ellipse
2. Planets speed depended on location from sun
3. Mathematical description of relationship between sun and planets
Patronized by the Medici family.
Claims that nature can be described through math (quantitative science)
Advocated Copernican theory.
Challenged ideas of solar system with telescope.
Trial of Galileo
(1633) Galileo is charged with heresy and defying the church.
Galileo recants and is put under house arrest.
Mistakes acknowledged in 1992...
Author: Sir Isaac Newton
Synthesizes Newtonian physics
Emphasizes the 3 laws of motion and gravity.
Newtonian View of the Universe
The universe is a finely tuned machine made by God.
humans are to reason by the laws of that machine.
However, he believed God would break the laws to repair the machine.
The father of empiricism.
Develops inductive reasoning, like the scientific method.
Believed that real science had to improve human life.
Means Great Restoration in Latin
Renewal to human knowledge and understandings.
Mathematician, analytical geometry.
Claimed that every intellectual assertion was objected to systematic doubt.
Presents deductive reasoning.
Discourse on Method: very skeptical
"Cogito, ergo sum"
"I think therefore I am."
Discourse on Method
Addresses deductive reasoning
Valued math in science.
Everything in nature has a non-physical mind and a physical body.
One realm can not address or assess the other.
Science is only the physical realm and thus should be secular.
Taught that the world was infused with a single spirit that could be explored through math and magic
Located reality in a world of spirit rather than in the physical world we experience