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Flashcards in Road To WWII Deck (65)
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Fascism

Seen as the "third way"
Emerges in Italy.
Alternative to the failure of liberalism and the horror of Marxism.
Far right of the political spectrum.
Picks up after Great Depression

1

Fascism: Anti-Communist

Fascism is of the far right
Communism is far left.

2

Fascism: Anti-Marxist

Protect state from Marxism because it advocated communism.
Gained support from middle-class.

3

Fascism: Militaristic

War is the grounds on which the power of a nation is proved.

4

Fascism: Antidemocratic

Believed to be inefficient; a single ruler is more efficient

5

Fascism: One Party Rule

Ban rival parties, ensures that there won't be a revolution.
Only very similar parties with different names allowed.

6

Fascism: Glorification of the State

The state is all powerful and the face of its historical evolution.

7

Furher principle

The face and the physical embodiment of a country is its leader

8

Benito Musssolini

Started as a socialist but when WWI comes along he abandons this ideology.
Father of fascism
Dictator of Italy from 1922-1943

9

Avanti

Socialist newspaper that Mussolini was an editor for.

10

Il popolo d'Italia

Translates to "People of Italy"
Newspaper created by Mussolini.
Addresses the issue that Italy got nothing out of war.
Expresses discontent with Versailles.

10

D'Annunzio

Vocal Italian nationalist.
Invades Fiume (Austrian territory) and takes over.

10

Social Turmoil

Manufacturing decreases
Workers strike and occupy factories
Peasants seize uncultivated land from landowners.
Bourgeoisie afraid of Marxist revolution.

11

Political Turmoil

Government (Chamber of Deputies) is in gridlock.
Socialist party has a plurality.
Gave ministers ability to rule by decree.

12

Fasci Di Combattimento

WWI veterans which are hired as the military arm for fascists.

14

Squadristis

"Black Shirts"
Enforcers taken from Fasci Di Combattimento.
Attack socialists, governments turns blind eye bc scared of communism.

16

Italian election of 1921

Fascism becomes more popular
35 seats out of 500.

17

March on Rome

October, 1922
Black shirts preform marches in Rome.
Marks the emergence of fascism.

18

Mussolini as Prime Minister.

October 29th, 1992
Mussolini becomes Prime Minister, promising to use power to stop the marches.

19

Mussolini as Dictator

November, 1922
Mussolini is given dictatorial power for a year.
Appoints fascists to political offices.
Makes a law so that the party receiving a plurality gets 2/3 of Deputies seats.

20

Italian election 1924

Fascists receive a plurality of votes and are awarded 2/3 of the seats.
All other parties dissolve, leaving only fascists.

21

Giacomo Matteoti

Leading socialist, member of Deputies.
Non-communist.
Criticized Mussolini, squadristi assassinate him.

22

Lateran Accord of 1929

Stops cultural war between the Vatican and Italy.
Vatican City becomes its own state.
Legitimizes Mussolini.

23

Women in a Fascist Society

Encouraged to have children.
Generous maternity leave.
Discouraged and eventually outlawed information regarding and practice of abortions and contraception.
Women still make 25% of labor force

24

Problems with the Weimar

Proportional representation: allowed for extremist minorities (fascists)
Article 48

25

Article 48

If there is an emergency then the President or a presidential designee can take dictatorial power.

26

Tension in Germany

Discontent over Versailles
Loss of Alsace & Lorraine
Economic downfall due to loss of the Rhur and war reparations.
Doubt toward the SDP

27

Kapp Putsch

March 1920
Attempted overthrow of Weimar Republic.
Workers strike
German army puts it down, saves gov.
Doesn't succeed.

27

Great Inflation of 1923

Government pays Germans in Ruhr to stop working.
Farmers charge higher prices for grain.
Everything gets expensive

29

Adolf Hitler

Started as an Austrian artist
Receives nationalist, anti communist, and anti Semitic views from Catholic Popular Party.
Joins WWI, becomes leader of Nazis.