Which drugs can inhibit the bronchospasm in the immediate/early phase of asthma?
B2 receptor agonists (salbutamol, terbutaline, salmeterol, formoterol)
Anticholinergics (ipratropium, tiotropium)
(+ leukotriene receptor antagonists)
Which drugs are used to reverse the inflammation in the late phase of asthma?
Leukotriene receptor antagonists
What are the 3 main systems to target in obstructive airways disease?
Bronchiolar smooth muscle constriction (nervous system control)
Airway hyper-responsiveness (acute immune response)
Airway chronic inflammation (target immune system in the lung)
What is used for the management of severe acute asthma?
S: Salbutamol (B2 agonists)
H: Hydrocortisone (glucocorticoid)
I: Iptraropium (anticholinergic)
T: Theophylline (methyxanthine)
What are the effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems on bronchiolar smooth muscle?
Which receptor do anticholinergics act on to reduce smooth muscle constriction?
Which neurotransmitter do they block at this receptor?
Muscarinic (M3) receptors
Block the binding of ACh
Which intracellular substance do methylxanthines act on?
Inhibit phosphodiasterase enzymes preventing the breakdown of cAMP
Which immune cells in the lungs do glucocorticoids target?