What is epidemiological transition?
Used to denote historical change in the demographic and disease profiles of countries as they move through periods of economic and social development.
How do patterns of disease change with epidemiological transition?
As countries move through social and economic development, deaths from acute infectious and deficiency related diseases decrease; deaths from chronic and non-communicable diseases increases.
What does infant mortality rate indicate?
Indicator of the health of a population: closely associated with a nation's living conditions.
Recent increase in UK- fuck knows why
Define life expectancy at birth
The number of years a newborn baby can be expected to live if the mortality patterns at the time of their birth stay constant.
Define healthy life expectancy at birth
The number of years a newborn baby can expect to live in relatively good health
What are key features of the epidemiological transition?
Birth rates decline
Life expectancy increases
Deaths from acute and deficiency related diseases decrease
Deaths from chronic and non-communicable diseases increase
What are the leading causes of death in the UK for men and women?
- Ischaemic heart disease
- Dementia and Alzheimer's
What are the leading causes of cancer-related deaths for men and women?
Lung most common for both men and women
2nd for women: breast cancer
2nd for men: prostate cancer
What are the long term epidemiological trends in the UK?
Disease patterns transitioning from acute → chronic
Increase in disability free life expectancy
Increase in life expectancy
Define health inequality
Systematic differences in health between populations
What are the main determinants of health inequalities?
- Socio-economic status and conditions of daily living
- Ethnicity and culture
How does the behavioural and cultural model explain health inequalities?
States that health inequalities are seen as a result of health behaviours and lifestyles.
Health behaviour choices seen as a result of:
- Individual choices
Does not account for all health inequalities
What is the material explanation for health inequalities?
Suggests that health inequalities result from the direct effects of poverty and material deprivation:
- Poor access to housing, healthcare, food, fuel for heating, transport, healthy meals, exercise facilities etc.
Does not explain how many of the richest countries still have greater levels of health inequality.
What is the psychosocial explanation for health inequalities?
Suggests that health inequalities stem from the psychosocial environment.
Psychosocial stress affects health by:
- 'Allostatic load' links psychosocial stess to physical health via neuroendocrine pathway.
- Indirectly: adoption of unhealthy behaviours.
States the psychosocial stress caused by social inequalities causes the social gradient of health outcomes.
- Stress associated with social hierarchy and low social control
- Stress associated with low income and poorer material circumstances
Which theories are most likely to explain the social gradient in health?
- Material explanation
- Psychosocial explanation
What is the registrar general's socio-economic classification?
(usually used), defines socio-economic position according to occupation.
With each step down the socio-economic ladder, health becomes poorer.
Which cancers are more common amongst higher and lower socio-economic groups?
Lower socio-economic groups: larynx
Higher socio-economic groups: breast, prostate, skin