Flashcards in Pharynx Deck (43)
Where does the pharynx begin and end?
Base of skull
What forms the anterior, posterior and lower borders of the nasopharynx?
Posterior: Body of C1 vertebra (and superior part of C2)
Lower: Soft palate
When is the nasopharynx closed off from the rest of the pharynx?
What controls this movement?
During swallowing when the soft palate contracts to close the gap.
-Tensor veli palatini (Stretches soft palate)
-Levator veli palatini (elevates soft palate)
Where does the oropharynx begin and end?
Palatal arches to lower border of epiglottis
What does the pharynx connect?
Nasal and oral cavities with larynx and oesophagus
What muscle stretches the soft palate and elevates the pharynx?
Tensor veli palatini
What muscle elevates the soft palate and elevates the larynx?
Levator veli palatini
What do the tensor and levator veli palatini muscles do to the auditory tube? What is the purpose of this?
Assists with drainage from the middle ear
Equalises pressure between the middle ear and nasopharynx
What is the sensory innervation of the pharynx?
Nasopharynx: CNVb and IX
Laryngopharynx: CNIX and X
(CNIX supplies respiratory mucosa)
What is the epiglottis?
What is its role?
Cartilage of the larynx
Covers laryngeal inlet during swallowing to prevent aspiration
Where does the laryngopharynx begin and end?
Base of tongue/upper epiglottis to cricopharyngeus muscle
Which muscle has to relax in order to allow a food bolus to pass through the laryngopharynx into the oesophagus?
What epithelium lines the nasopharynx?
Respiratory epithelium: pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar
What epithelium lines the oropharynx and laryngopharynx?
Stratified squamous epithelium
What are the 3 pharyngeal constrictor muscles?
What is considered the true upper oesophageal constrictor?
What fills gaps between the pharyngeal constrictor muscles on the lateral and anterior portions?
Continuous internal fascia and mucosa lines all 3 pharyngeal constrictor muscles
What is the action of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles?
Reduce the diameter of the pharynx
Peristalsis to propel bolus into the oesophagus
What is the motor supply to the pharyngeal muscles?
All CNX except:
- Stylohyoid: CNIX
- Tensor veli palatini: CNVc
What could paralysis of CNX lead to in the pharynx?
Lack of gag reflex
The hyoid bone is an insertion point for which pharyngeal constrictor muscles?
Which structure extends between the styloid process and the hyoid bone?
What is its function?
What is the anterior attachment point for the superior constrictor muscle?
What does the middle constrictor muscle insert into anteriorly?
What are the complications of overgrown styloid processes?
Facial pain on head rotation
Feeling of 'something in throat'
Carotid artery compression
How do the pharyngeal constrictor muscles attach to eachother?
Attach posteriorly at the midline raphe
Where does the midline raphe extend from and to?
Base of skull to the 'weak spot' at the inferior aspect of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
What can form through the weak spot in the pharynx?
What might be the symptoms of this?
Pharyngeal (Zenker's) diverticulum:
Herniation of the pharyngeal mucosa through the weak spot
-Feeling of fullness in throat
-Regurgitation of food on coughing
Coordinated peristalsis of constrictors and relaxation of cricopharyngeus causes what?
Drop in intrapharyngeal pressure to allow food bolus to progress downwards into oesophagus