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Flashcards in Pharynx Deck (43)
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1

Where does the pharynx begin and end?

Base of skull
Proximal oesophagus

2

What forms the anterior, posterior and lower borders of the nasopharynx?

Anterior: choanae
Posterior: Body of C1 vertebra (and superior part of C2)
Lower: Soft palate

3

When is the nasopharynx closed off from the rest of the pharynx?
What controls this movement?

During swallowing when the soft palate contracts to close the gap.
Controlled by:
-Tensor veli palatini (Stretches soft palate)
-Levator veli palatini (elevates soft palate)

4

Where does the oropharynx begin and end?

Palatal arches to lower border of epiglottis

5

What does the pharynx connect?

Nasal and oral cavities with larynx and oesophagus

6

What muscle stretches the soft palate and elevates the pharynx?

Tensor veli palatini

7

What muscle elevates the soft palate and elevates the larynx?

Levator veli palatini

8

What do the tensor and levator veli palatini muscles do to the auditory tube? What is the purpose of this?

Assists with drainage from the middle ear
Equalises pressure between the middle ear and nasopharynx

9

What is the sensory innervation of the pharynx?

Nasopharynx: CNVb and IX
Oropharynx: CNIX
Laryngopharynx: CNIX and X

(CNIX supplies respiratory mucosa)

10

What is the epiglottis?
What is its role?

Cartilage of the larynx
Covers laryngeal inlet during swallowing to prevent aspiration

11

Where does the laryngopharynx begin and end?

Base of tongue/upper epiglottis to cricopharyngeus muscle

12

Which muscle has to relax in order to allow a food bolus to pass through the laryngopharynx into the oesophagus?

Cricopharyngeus

13

What epithelium lines the nasopharynx?

Respiratory epithelium: pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar

14

What epithelium lines the oropharynx and laryngopharynx?

Stratified squamous epithelium
Resists abrasion

15

What are the 3 pharyngeal constrictor muscles?

Superior constrictor
Middle constrictor
Inferior constrictor

16

What is considered the true upper oesophageal constrictor?

Cricopharyngeus muscle

17

What fills gaps between the pharyngeal constrictor muscles on the lateral and anterior portions?

Continuous internal fascia and mucosa lines all 3 pharyngeal constrictor muscles

18

What is the action of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles?

Reduce the diameter of the pharynx
Peristalsis to propel bolus into the oesophagus

19

What is the motor supply to the pharyngeal muscles?

All CNX except:
- Stylohyoid: CNIX
- Tensor veli palatini: CNVc

20

What could paralysis of CNX lead to in the pharynx?

Uncoordinated swallowing
Lack of gag reflex

21

The hyoid bone is an insertion point for which pharyngeal constrictor muscles?

Middle constrictor

22

Which structure extends between the styloid process and the hyoid bone?
What is its function?

Stylohyoid ligament

23

What is the anterior attachment point for the superior constrictor muscle?

Pterygomandibular raphe

24

What does the middle constrictor muscle insert into anteriorly?

Hyoid bone
Stylohyoid ligament

25

What are the complications of overgrown styloid processes?

Dysphasia
Facial pain on head rotation
Feeling of 'something in throat'
Carotid artery compression

26

How do the pharyngeal constrictor muscles attach to eachother?

Attach posteriorly at the midline raphe

27

Where does the midline raphe extend from and to?

Base of skull to the 'weak spot' at the inferior aspect of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

28

What can form through the weak spot in the pharynx?
What might be the symptoms of this?

Pharyngeal (Zenker's) diverticulum:
Herniation of the pharyngeal mucosa through the weak spot
-Halitosis
-Infection
-Feeling of fullness in throat
-Regurgitation of food on coughing

29

Coordinated peristalsis of constrictors and relaxation of cricopharyngeus causes what?

Drop in intrapharyngeal pressure to allow food bolus to progress downwards into oesophagus

30

What is the piriform fossa?
What is its function?

Gutter-like recess between central larynx and lateral thyroid cartilage
Helps to direct food and fluid to either side of the larynx to pass down laryngopharynx into the oesophagus without having to pass over the top of the epiglottis covering the airway.