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Flashcards in Promoting health and preventing illness Deck (9)
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1

Define prevention

Interventions aimed at eradicating, eliminating or minimising the impact of disease and disability. If none of these are possible, slowing the progression of disease and disability. 

2

What is health promotion?

The process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants and thereby improve their health. 

3

What are Leavell and Clark's different levels of disease prevention?

Primary prevention:

  • Pre-disease stage
  • Aim of avoiding development of a disease in the first place
  • E.g immunisations, health education
  • Public health and GP led.

Secondary prevention:

  • Latent/early stage of disease
  • Aim for early detection of disease and early treatment to slow/halt progression
  • E.g. screening/case detection
  • GP and hospitals

Tertiary prevention:

  • Symptomatic disease stage
  • Aim to limit damage from disease, to slow progression, reduce severity and maximise QoL.
  • E.g. rehabilitation programmes, pain management
  • Hospitals, rehabilitation programmes, palliative care. 

 

 

4

What is the individual approach to promoting health and preventing illness?

What are its strengths and weaknesses?

Aim preventative care at high risk individuals.

Strengths:

  • High patient motivation and high doctor motivation

Weaknesses:

  • High demand on resources to identify high risk patients
  • Medicalises prevention
  • May stigmatise patients
  • Does not produce lasting change at population levels

5

What is the population approach to promoting health and preventing illness?

What are its strengths and weaknesses?

Directed at the whole population, irrespective of risk. Directed towards socio-economic, behavioural and lifestyle changes. 

Strengths:

  • Benefit for population as a whole
  • Attempts to control root causes of disease
  • Shifts cultural norms
  • Can work passively
  • More permanent results

Weaknesses:

  • Benefit is small for each individual
  • Low subject motivation

6

What are the models of entity and health promotion?

  • Ewles and Simnett 5 approaches
  • Beattie's model of health promotion

Both suggest that to make health promotion effective, you need a multi-faceted approach. 

Help select the most effective/acceptable strategies

Makes explicit our aims and choice of strategies

7

Describe Ewle and Simnett's 5 approaches to health promotion

  • Medical: screening, immunisation
  • Behaviour change: encourages healthier behaviours
  • Educational: Provide information → informed choice
  • Client centered: Health issues identified by client/community
  • Societal change: Change physical, social and economic environment (e.g. policy, legislation) to make healthier choices easier. 

8

Describe Beattie's 4 quadrants model of health promotion

  • Authoritative ⇔ Negotiated
  • Individual ⇔ Collective

Individual and negotiated:

  • Personal counselling

Individual and authoritative:

  • Health persuasion
  • Behaviour change
  • Education, advice

Collective and authoritative:

  • Legislative action 
  • Health surveillance

Collective and negotiated:

  • Community development
  • Lobbying
  • Action research
  • Skill sharing

 

9

What is Rose's prevention paradox?

A preventative measure that brings large benefits to the community offers little to each participating individual