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Flashcards in Promoting health and preventing illness Deck (9)
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Define prevention

Interventions aimed at eradicating, eliminating or minimising the impact of disease and disability. If none of these are possible, slowing the progression of disease and disability. 


What is health promotion?

The process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants and thereby improve their health. 


What are Leavell and Clark's different levels of disease prevention?

Primary prevention:

  • Pre-disease stage
  • Aim of avoiding development of a disease in the first place
  • E.g immunisations, health education
  • Public health and GP led.

Secondary prevention:

  • Latent/early stage of disease
  • Aim for early detection of disease and early treatment to slow/halt progression
  • E.g. screening/case detection
  • GP and hospitals

Tertiary prevention:

  • Symptomatic disease stage
  • Aim to limit damage from disease, to slow progression, reduce severity and maximise QoL.
  • E.g. rehabilitation programmes, pain management
  • Hospitals, rehabilitation programmes, palliative care. 




What is the individual approach to promoting health and preventing illness?

What are its strengths and weaknesses?

Aim preventative care at high risk individuals.


  • High patient motivation and high doctor motivation


  • High demand on resources to identify high risk patients
  • Medicalises prevention
  • May stigmatise patients
  • Does not produce lasting change at population levels


What is the population approach to promoting health and preventing illness?

What are its strengths and weaknesses?

Directed at the whole population, irrespective of risk. Directed towards socio-economic, behavioural and lifestyle changes. 


  • Benefit for population as a whole
  • Attempts to control root causes of disease
  • Shifts cultural norms
  • Can work passively
  • More permanent results


  • Benefit is small for each individual
  • Low subject motivation


What are the models of entity and health promotion?

  • Ewles and Simnett 5 approaches
  • Beattie's model of health promotion

Both suggest that to make health promotion effective, you need a multi-faceted approach. 

Help select the most effective/acceptable strategies

Makes explicit our aims and choice of strategies


Describe Ewle and Simnett's 5 approaches to health promotion

  • Medical: screening, immunisation
  • Behaviour change: encourages healthier behaviours
  • Educational: Provide information → informed choice
  • Client centered: Health issues identified by client/community
  • Societal change: Change physical, social and economic environment (e.g. policy, legislation) to make healthier choices easier. 


Describe Beattie's 4 quadrants model of health promotion

  • Authoritative ⇔ Negotiated
  • Individual ⇔ Collective

Individual and negotiated:

  • Personal counselling

Individual and authoritative:

  • Health persuasion
  • Behaviour change
  • Education, advice

Collective and authoritative:

  • Legislative action 
  • Health surveillance

Collective and negotiated:

  • Community development
  • Lobbying
  • Action research
  • Skill sharing



What is Rose's prevention paradox?

A preventative measure that brings large benefits to the community offers little to each participating individual