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Flashcards in Pharmacodynamics Deck (54)
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1

Radioactive Iodine

Iodine is actively concentrated in the thyroid and the radiation will destroy all tissue within 2-3mm causing focal, controlled destruction

2

How does down regulation of receptors occur?

Internalizing the receptors in lysosomes, recycling them, sequestering or degrading.

Part of normal cellular metabolism 

Tolerance

Tachyphylaxis

3

Down Regulation of Receptors

Number of receptors decreases and therefore a reduction in the effect

4

Full Agonist

Binds to the receptor to elicit a maximal response

5

Examples of non receptor biological reactions

Voltage Gated Channels

Enzymes

Carrier Proteins

6

Targets for drug reaction are divided into what two categories

Physical Interactions

Biological Interactions

7

Common receptor for secretory and smooth muscle functions whre the changes occur over seconds.

Metabotropic Receptors

8

Nonspecific drug effects occur in (physical/biological) interactions

Physical Interactions

9

Examples of nonspecific drug effects

Osmotic Diuretics

Antacids

Radioactive Iodine

10

Drug effects on Voltage Gated Channels

Blocking of ion channels can occur by the drug moleucle physically obstructing the channel to impair ion movment.  Drug may also modulate the opening/or closing of the channel

11

The straight portion of the sigmoidal drug response curve falls between what range?  This corresponds to what?

20-80%

Therapeutic Range

12

Ionotropic Receptors

13

Steroids and thyroid hormones are examples of what type of receptor, new protein production starts over the course of hours

Nuclear Receptors

14

Mixed Agonist - Antagonist

Acts as an agonist in one type of receptor and as an antagonist on other types of receptors

15

Side Effects

Secondary to the intended effect and may be good or bad

16

Agonist

Mimics the effect of the endogenous ligand

17

Toxic Effects

Responses to a drug that are harmful to the health or life of the animal

18

Efficacy

Maximal effect a drug can have

19

Types of pharmacodynamic receptors

Ionotropic Receptors

Metabolic Receptors

Kinase-Coupled Receptors

Nuclear Receptors

 

20

Antacids (Direct Neutralizers)

Given orally they direct interact with acid in the GI tract, a form of physiologic antagonism

21

Drug effects on Enzymes

Drugs can be analogs that compete with the real substrate for binding to the enzyme, prodrugs where the drug needs to be metabolized into its active form or can act as false substrates which will lead to the formation of abnormal metabolites instead of active product.

22

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50)

Dose which kills 50% of animals

23

Ceiling effect

A partial agonist may never be able to achieve full efficacy

24

Osmotic Diuretics

Molecules move through the body dragging water with them by osmosis until they are excreted

25

Partial Agonist

Will bind to the receptor but not cause as much effect as a full agonist, it does prevent anything else from binding to the receptor while docked there

26

Effective Concentration 50 (EC50)

Concentration at which a drug produces 50% of its maximal effect, only applies to in vitro preparations useful to compare the efficacy of different ligands

27

Onset of Action (Latent Period)

Time required after drug administration for a response to be observed

28

T/F: Endogenous neurotransmitters often bind to more than one type of receptor.  The same signaling molecule can then cause different effects or have different affinity in different tissues or species.

True

29

A low therapeutic index indicates a (safe/dangerous) drug

Dangerous

30

Chemical Antagonism

Two drugs chemically inactivate each other