Flashcards in Learning and Development - Part 2 Deck (94)
Which aspect of PERCEPTION develops FIRST in an infant?
A preference for faces over other visual patterns
Piaget attributed the animistic thinking of kids in the preoperational stage to what? EGOCENTRISM
Piaget's Concrete Operation Stage is what?
Ages 7-11 years old
Second order conditioning facts
The second conditioned response will not be as strong as the first
One criticism of anger management training for kids is what?
It places too much emphasis on the individual (does not take into effect societal factors)
According to Piaget, the ability to think abstractly is evident at about what age?
What enhances the effectiveness of punishment?
- Admin immediately after target behavior occurs
- When applied consistently
- When the relationship between behavior and punishment is verbally clarified
- When warning occurs first
- When all positive reinforcements for the targeted behavior are withheld
What are we looking for when conducting a Functional Behavioral Analysis?
Conditions that control a behavior
Used to eliminate an undesirable behavior- involves having person correct the consequences of their behavior AND/OR practice corrective behaviors (positive practice)
What type of technique would be good to change sleep behaviors?
Stimulus Control - based on the idea that increasing or strengthening links between certain cues and behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior
IE only sleep in bed for sleeping; get up at same time each morning, avoid napping, get up after 20 mins
Involves REINFORCEMENT a low frequency behavior (homework) with a high frequency behavior (video games) in order to increase the low-frequency behavior.
At what age to children start to define themselves: "I am friendly" or "I am shy."
End of Middle
Which theorist would prescribe a client with insomnia to wash the floors for 2 hours each time they woke up in the night?
Milton Erickson, who talked about "ORDEALS" by him and Haley
Klein vs Anna Freud and children's play
Klein thought kids play was "free association", while Anna freud argued that it was kids "acting out"
A negative reinforcement in which a behavior occurs because it allows the subject to escape an undesireable stimulus or event. (Kid apologizing after hitting other kids and ending up in time out).
For retaining information in Long-
Term Memory, which of the following are most critical?
Visual Representation, Time, Repetition, or Meaningful Organization?
Vygotsky viewed the self-talk among children to what?
A means of self-guidance and self-instruction
To what principal does an operant psychologist attribute a complex series of behaviors?
With regard to predicting job performance, how well does "g" factor (General Cognitive Ability)
It is predictive of performance across a wide variety of jobs
If a mother reinforces both kid's homework and piano practice separately with coins, and then withdraws the coins given for piano, what will happen to each of the behaviors?
The piano practice will decrease but the homework will increase due to "behavioral contrast" phenomenon.
Halophrasic versus Telegraphic speech
"Milk" versus "Want Milk"
What do mother's tend to remember about their children?
Unconscious, Automatic; IE procedural memory like buttoning pants in the morning
KUBLER ROSS's stages of Dying
1. Denial 2.) Anger 3) Bargaining 4.) Depression 5.) Acceptance
Gradual decline in intensity, frequency, and duration of a response is called what?
(No such thing as fading)
Research comparisons of monolingual and bilingual children have shown what with regard to inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility
Bilingual children outperform monolingual children on both measures
In 1979, it was ruled that IQ tests could no longer be utilized to do what?
Use them to decide if African American children should be placed in special education classes
Tolman research with rats in mazes showed what?
That reinforcement is not always necessary for learning
Observing for pre-specified time periods