Flashcards in Intro 2-Intelligence Deck (96)
What did Sternberg say about intelligence?
It is important to everyone, everyday, for example parents are concerned about child's intelligence, for perception in long term relationships, and in jobs. Everyone has ideas of their own and others' intelligence
What is the dictionary definition of intelligence?
Understanding as a quality admitting of degree; specifically superior understanding; quickness of mental apprehension, sagacity
What is Sternberg and Salter's definition of intelligence?
Ability to engage in 'goal-directed adaptive behaviour'
What is Boring's definition of intelligence?
It is what intelligence tests measure
Why can intelligence be hard to measure?
It is a hypothetical construct-an explanatory variable not directly observable. It has a theoretical definition and the creation of the construct is part of operationalisation
Why is operationalisation necessary?
So things can be understood in terms of empirical observations
What are implicit theories of intelligence?
They are based on lay people's views. They drive the way people perceive and evaluate own/others intelligence. They can give rise to more formal theories, and may generate new research hypotheses/inspire research
What has research found about implicit theories?
The theories depend on the sample or population being examined
What is an example of research into implicit theories of intelligence?
Sternberg et al. Individual conceptions in people studying in college library, people entering supermarket, and people waiting for the train (all groups of lay people)
What were the two phases of Sternberg et al's experiment?
First asked to list behaviour characteristic of intelligence, academic intelligence, everyday intelligence and unintelligence. Then asked others to rate how well each behaviour listed reflected aspects of intelligence
What were the results of Sternberg et al's study?
There are three dimensions of intelligence in laypersons: practical problem solving ability, verbal ability, and social competence
What was found when a similar study to Sternberg et al's was completed with 140 experts in intelligence?
They rated verbal ability, problem solving ability and practical intelligence. There were similarities to lay people, but implicit theories can vary when considered across cultures, by experts, and across life span
How do lay persons' implicit theories change across cultures?
Western culture focuses on speed of mental processing and ability to gather/assimilate/sort quickly and efficiently. Eastern culture focuses on goof cognitive/memory skills but also social/historical/spiritual aspects of interaction and problem solving skills
What did Siegler and Richards find about conceptions of intelligence for different ages?
At 6 months it is based on recognising things, signs of coordination, awareness and verbalisations. 2 years is based on verbal ability, learning, awareness, coordination and curiosity. 10 years based on verbal ability, learning, problem solving, reasoning and creativity. Adult intelligence is based on problem solving, verbal ability, reasoning and creativity
Who was Galton?
British naturalist and science author concerned with the heritability of intelligence. Founder of differential and experimental psychology with Wundt, and invented the terms 'regression' and 'correlation coefficient'
What areas of intelligence was Galton interested in?
Showing that individuals differ in intelligence, and that intelligence was dealing with information gained through senses and so intelligence tests should involve reaction times
What did Binet contribute to intelligence?
The Binet-Simon scale was the first intelligence test for children
What did the Binet-Simon scale involve?
30 short everyday-related tasks such as following light with eyes, naming objects, counting coins etc. Tasks increased with difficulty, and aimed to determine the child's mental age and then determine what is average
What did Stern create in relation to IQ and standardised testing?
The intelligence quotient (IQ) which is mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100. When mental age matches chronological age, the result would be 100 and so an IQ of 100 is average intelligence
What intelligence tests did Yerkes create during WW1?
The army alpha for literates and the beta test for illiterates (less than 6 years speaking English), to help assign tasks because it could be completed simultaneously by a number of people
How many subtests were in the army alpha test, and what were they?
Eight subtests: follow oral directions, solve arithmetic problems, show practical judgement, synonyms/antonyms, rearrange wrong sentences, uncompleted series of numbers, see analogies, and demonstrate information
How many subtests were in the army beta test, and what where they?
Seven subtests: maze tasks, cube analysis, X-O graphic displays, digit symbols, number symbols, complete a picture, and geometrical construction
What is the logic of intelligence testing?
Measuring consequential behaviour is not usually very efficient and so a test has several advantages as it is easy to do, takes less time, can have larger samples, and can be standardised
What does the triangle diagram represent in terms of the logic of intelligence testing?
Hypothetical property, consequential behaviour (grades/job performance/income/health etc), response (questions/tasks)
What did Spearman talk about?
General and specific intelligence (two factor theory) by looking at intelligence tests of memory and sensory discrimination then analysed the relationship, finding a positive correlation
What is general intelligence?
Underlying intelligence required for all intelligence performances
What is specific intelligence?
Spatial, vocab and maths
How is 'g' measured?
The Wechsler test (modelled by 2-factor theory)
How has the Wechsler test changed through time?
1939 Wechsler-Bellevue test. 1955 Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS) and the Wechsler scale for children