Flashcards in Health, Illness and Society Deck (293)
What are the characteristics of social anthropology?
Interdisciplinarity, holism, non-judgemental, disaggregative, cultural perspective, local and global interest, individuals/populations/groups/societies, methodological pluralism with innovation and sensitivity, comparative, historical, language/symbols/rituals/narrative
How is medical anthropology interdisciplinary?
Looks and bioscientific epidemiology, the construction of knowledge, the politics of science, norms and institutions, and globalisation
What were some of the earliest examples of medical anthropology?
Pre WW2, W.H.R Rivers looked at Medicine, Magic and Religion. Also Ackerknecht looked at 'primitive medicine'/ethnomedicine
What is ethnomedicine?
Relating to disease that are products of indigenous cultural development
What are culture bound syndromes?
Locality specific problems such as Hikikomori (Japan), voodoo death, cannibal compulsion, agoraphobia (Western)
How did medical anthropology develop post WW2?
International public health and community health development. Kleinman used term 'clinical anthropology'
What is the diversification of medical anthropology?
What are the three health definitions?
Disease (medical experts view), illness (patients view) and sickness (society's view)
What are diseases?
Abnormalities in structure/function of body organs or systems. Pathology, biomedically diagnosed and treated. Eg cystic fibrosis has both genetic and environmental factors, and is a biochemical dysfunction
What is Dingwall's view of disease?
'there are no...diseases in nature' it is a social construction
What is Eisenberg's view of illness?
Illness is experiences of disvalued changed in states of being/social function
What are illnesses?
People have illnesses where organs have diseases. Illnesses are the movement from independence to dependence. They are influenced by social and economic factors. Cystic fibrosis sufferers have the same disease but different illnesses due to different perspectives
What is Cassell's view of illness?
Illness is why you go to a doctor and disease is what you have after visiting the doctor. You cure a disease but heal an illness
What is sickness?
The sum total of disease and illness in an individual. Also process for socialising disease and illness (worrying behavioural/biological signs are given socially recognisable meanings (Young)
In sickness, what are the social relations of, and responses to, ill health?
Patients associations, fundraising for research, shared metaphorical associations/stigma, discrimination against minorities/the vulnerable/dispossessed
What are possible examples of restricted categories (conditions that are not diseases and illnesses and sicknesses all together)?
Hypertension, mental health problems, hypochondria
When did homosexuality stop being viewed as a mental illness?
It was removed from the DSM III in 1980 and the ICD 10 in 1992
What are some different approaches in medical anthropology?
Medical ecology, cultural interpretive theory, and critical medical anthropology
What is medical ecology?
It discusses the determinants of disease and suffering: natural environment, social environment, systems approach and adaptation
what is cultural interpretive theory?
Semantic determinants of disease and suffering: culture, interpretation, social construction
What is critical medical anthropology?
Political-economic determinants of disease and suffering: power, resistance, global systems, ethics and rights, hegemony
What are some methods in medical anthropology?
Surveys, participant observation (ethnography) (important reflexive dimension), interviews (informal, semi-structured), focus group discussions, life histories, participatory/action research (essays/mapping/seasonal calendar)
What is applied medical anthropology?
Critical understanding of perspectives, for better management of ill health
What is health?
A human construct, not an empirical fact
What are the three models of health?
Medical (absence of disease etc (negative definition)), functional/sociological (can perform daily tasks), idealist (complete well-being in all areas (biopsychosocial))
What are other conceptions of health:
Balanced relationship to/between god, world of spirits, unconscious and constitutive elements. Being 'normal' (a commodity). May not bear any relation to one's medical history
What is wellbeing?
The overlap of health, prosperity and happiness
What do health systems include?
Institutions (formal/informal), activities (clinical/non-clinical practices), skills, knowledge/beliefs/attitudes. These are interconnected but not necessarily integrated
How can health systems be understood?
In relation to society. They cannot be understood in isolation from other aspects of society. Medicine is important but not the sum total of all health care activities that take place in a health system