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Flashcards in Intro 2-Social Psychology Deck (135)
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What does social psychology investigate?

Psychology of social behaviours. Social aetiology of cognition. Social approach to methodology


How is social psychology investigated?

Lab experiments, observations, questionnaires, interviews and focus groups


What are different theoretical approaches?

Social learning/constructivism, cognitive constraints/models, evolutionary (social) psychology-random variation and systematic selection-controversial-critics confuse levels of explanation (biological determinism and naturalistic fallacy)


How has the replication crisis affected psychology?

75% social psychology studies, and half are cognitive psychology studies


What is evidence of the fact that humans are inherently social?

Minimal group paradigm (Tajfel). Dunbar-living socially was a major driving force in the evolution of the human brain. Dunbar's number-150


What is affiliation and sociality necessary for?

Health, cooperation and cultural transmission


Why is affiliation necessary for health?

Berkman and Breslow 20 year longitudinal study. Social support protects against major depression, and providing it may be more important than receiving it. Camaraderie also protects against emotional burnout in firefighters, and synchronised training leads to a higher pain tolerance in rowers


Why is affiliation necessary for cooperation?

Trading, hunting, warfare and intergroup competition. Eg Sherif et al Robbers cave study (spontaneous group divisions and cooperation required for superordinate goal). Newson et al-intergroup violence supports social cohesion in Brazilian football fans


Why is affiliation necessary for cultural transmission?

Gossip (20% of waking time is spent in conversation). Dunbar found this in dining hall conversations monitored every 30 seconds. Needed for social learning. Sherif-single light in dark room-information conformity


How do friendships differ from romantic relationships?

Rubin-love is more that just lots of liking. Sternberg's triarchic model of love (intimacy/passion/commitment). Friends are due to proximity, similarity and reciprocity. Relationships are due to these things but also physical attraction


What is passion?

Arousal and attribution. Dutton and Aron's experiment with high suspension bridge vs low sturdy bridge led to misattribution of arousal


What is lust/attraction/attachment?

Fisher-3 independent systems. Lust is androgen mediated, attraction is dopamine mediate, and attachment is oxytocin mediated


What is proximity in relationships?

Mere exposure effect. Propinquity and opportunity for interaction. Expectation of close interaction


What is similarity in relationships?

Newcomb-accommodation study. Heider and Newcomb-Balance theory. Festinger-social comparison theory


What is similarity in romantic attraction?

Byrne et al who paired blind dates and found that similarity was a strong predictor, though so was attractiveness


What does the role of similarity depend on?

How much commitment is desired (Amodio and Showers)


What is the role of reciprocity?

Dittes and Kelley looked at group discussion and fake 'approval ratings', and found that reciprocity can make up for the absence of similarity


What is social exchange theory?

Keep track of rewards and costs, then determine profits. Satisfaction level=outcome-comparison level. Dependence=outcome-comparison level for alternatives


What is equality?

Person 1's rewards equal person 2's rewards


What is equity?

Person 1's rewards-costs equal person 2's rewards-costs


What is equity theory?

Fair distribution of rewards and costs. It is the balance that counts


What does Campbell say about equity theory?

Emotions, not rational calculation, drive human behaviour


What was Walster et al's classic psychology study of attractiveness?

Computer design paradigm. Physical attractiveness predicted liking and intention to ask out again, however, the chance of a fifth date depended on similarity in attractiveness (Mathes)


What is the halo effect?

Attractiveness causes a halo effect, leading to belief that the person has more positive attributes and so receive more positive life time outcomes


What is the matching hypothesis?

Similarity in attractiveness is important, more so when in long term relationships (Berscheid and Walster)


How can beauty be seen as objective?

High level of agreement across cultures (Langlois et al), certain features reliably associated with attractiveness (Cunningham), babies prefer attractive faces


How can beauty be seen as subjective?

Beauty is improved differently across cultures (Newman), different cultures have different body type preference (Anderson) and this also varies over time (Silverstein et al)


What was Tovee et al's study?

Attractiveness ratings of BMIs with Zulus, Zulu migrants, and black British people. Similar study to Boothroyd et al in Nicaragua looking at attractiveness of BMIs and access to TV


What is the cognitive approach to attraction?

Facial prototype and attraction to 'averageness'-visual adaptation test with Rhodes et al


What does the cognitive approach to attraction find when looking at infants?

Average vs unattractive faces (Rubenstein et al), the distinctiveness preference (Rhodes et al, and Gilffrey and Little), and neonates-innate facial representation (Slater et al)