Flashcards in Intro 2-Developmental Psychology Deck (143)
What is the nativist position?
Emphasis on innate endowments. Idea we are 'preprogrammed'. Descartes, Chomsky, Spelke
What is the empiricist position?
Emphasis on environmental influence and role of learning/observing/culture. Locke, Bandura, Gopnik
What is the neuro-constructivist approach?
Emphasis on relative contributions of nature/nurture, on assumption both are important and they may have a reciprocal relationship
What are twin studies?
Monozygotic/dizygotc. Use statistical models to examine differences in correlations between two twin types to draw conclusions about heritability
What is an example of an influential twin study?
The Twins Early Development Study
What is the role of the environment?
Karmiloff-Smith: view that there are reciprocal interactions between genes and environment. Twin studies cannot discount role of environment (similar upbringing)-look at separated MZ twins, adoption studies, training studies
What research looks into critical periods?
Lorenz: imprinting. Behaviour was experience-dependent. Hess: degree of imprinting depended on age when imprinted and distance travelled
What research looks into active experience?
Held and Hein: active and passive learning in kittens
What methods are used in developmental psychology?
Observations, looking tasks (preferential looking/habituation and preferential looking), neuroimaging (EEG/NIRS/fMRI)
How much of the brain is related to visual perception?
What methods are used to study visual perception?
Neuroimaging studies. Many use two electrodes rather than a whole EEG net. Visual evoked potentials
What is orientation perception?
Compare random change with orientation change-Braddick
At what age is brain activity produced specifically by the orientation change?
Cortical orientation perception develops at 3 weeks
What is motion perception?
Compare same direction movement with direction change-Wattam-Bell. Looming (at birth)
At what age is brain activity produced specifically by the direction change?
10 Weeks (low speeds) or 13 weeks (high speeds). Experience is important (kittens reared in stroboscopic illumination have no directional cells in visual cortex
What is depth perception?
Pictoral cues (early) eg perspective and interposition. Compare depth changes with red-green and red-red goggles. Responses emerge at 11-13 weeks, and improve depth/detail/stereoacuity within 4-5 weeks of onset (Birch, Gwizada and Held)
What is stereopsis?
Perception of depth through noticing differences between images in two eyes (binocular disparity) Broddick and Atkinson.
What are traditional views of motor control?
Motor development seen as progression through series of milestones, phases or stages. Prominent in 1930s-40s and are still basis for 'modern' development scales, eg Bayley scales. Development thought to occur in rigid. strict, timed order
What are modern views of motor control?
Dynamic systems-motor abilities present earlier but experience is limited by other factors. Views pioneered by Thelen and held now by Adolph
What individual differences within cultures are there?
Continuous, not stage like changes (Piek/Adolph and Berger)
What is evidence of variability and flexibility in motor behaviour?
African and Caribbean practices (Adolph et al)
What is the importance of the role of experience?
Infants take around 9000 steps per day (Adolph). Will baby walk down slope experiment-depends on specific walking mode
What are the results of the visual cliff experiment (Gibson and Walk)
6-14 months-shallow or deep end to mother. Role of experience: 7-8 months. May not be as crucial for animals
Does physical context determine motor behaviour?
Thelen, Fisher and Ridley-Johnson. 12 infants held over table top for minute (4 weeks old). By this age, stepping reflex is disappearing. Thought to be result of inevitable neural maturation, but can it be altered by physical context? Stepping with weights decreased stepping frequency. Stepping in water increases it as buoyancy counteracts gravity. Stepping is limited by muscle strength as well as central factors
What did Piaget talk about when discussing cognitive development?
Learning process. Active learning (knowledge is not innate). Construct ways of understanding the world through schemata (patterns of behaviour, mental models, mental operations). Stage like development (identifiable stages which are qualitatively dissociable)
What is learning the result of?
Two processes working together in equilibrium. Assimilation (apply schema to new instance) and accommodation (development of new schema)
What are Piaget's developmental stages?
Sensorimotor stage (0-2 years), Preoperational stage (2-7 years), Concrete operational (7-11), Formal operational period (11+ years)
What is the sensorimotor stage?
Limited skills that gradually allow cognitive development. Developing sensorimotor schema. Primary, secondary and tertiary circular reactions. Develop object performance (4-8 months 'out of sight out of mind, 8-12months know occluded objects exist, 12-18 months solve A not B error but do not understand invisible objects move)
What happens in the peroperational and concrete operational stage?
Rapid increase in language (symbolic thought) but cannot manimpulate concepts. Egocentrism and perspective taking (concrete operational pass doll POV task). Conservation-counters rearranged but same number remain (early preoperational fail). Seriation and transitive interference in concrete operational only. Class inclusion (sets and subsets) concrete operational pass