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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (30)
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1

What does the sympathetic system do?

Fight or flight
Dilate pupils, inhibit salvation, increase heart beat, relax airway, inhibit stomach, stimulate glucose release, inhibit activity of intestines, secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, relax bladder and promote ejactulation and vaginal contraction

2

What does the parasympathetic system do?

Rest and Digest
Constrict pupils, stimulate saliva, slow heartbeat, constrict airways, slow heart beat, stimulate stomach, inhibit release of glucose, stimulate intestines, contract bladder, promote erection of genitals

3

Where do sympathetic divisions priorities?

Brain, heart, skeletal muscles

4

When does vasoconstriction of blood vessels to skin occur?

During stress or exercise to minimise blood loss if injury occurred

5

What does your nervous system use to send messages?

Neurones

6

What does your endocrine system use to send messages?

Hormones

7

Where does neurocrine communication occur?

Anterior and posterior pituitary, adrenal medulla

8

Where is the thymus?

Superior mediastinum

9

What happens to the thymus over time?

Fully formed at birth, involutes after puberty and in late teens is mostly fat

10

What is the role of the thymus?

Maturation of bone marrow derived stem cells into immunocompetent T cells (thymic cell education)
Produced thymosin which is a hormone to promote T cell maturation

11

Where do hormones control and regulate?

Reproduction, metabolism and energy balance, growth and development, body defenses, general homeostasis and water, nutrient, and electrolyte balance of the blood

12

What are the different types of hormones?

Peptide, steroid, thyroid, catecholamines

13

What does the hypothalamus do as a whole?

Keeps tabs on whats going on all over the body

14

What does the hypothalamus do individually?

Thermoregulation
Heart rate
Blood pressure
osmolality of plasma
Circadian rhythms
Feeding, satiety and GIT regulation
Autonomic input via connections to the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
Emotion
Lactation
Sexual behaviour

15

What does the hypothalamus produce?

ADH
Oxytocin
6 hormones- 4 stimulatory and 2 inhibitory to anterior pituitary

16

What are the two lobes of the pituitary?

Anterior and posterior

17

What is the portal system called involving the anterior pituitary?

Hypothalamo- hypophyseal portal system

18

What is stress?

A state of real or perceived threat to homeostasis

19

What are the behavioural effects of stress?

increased awareness, improved cognition, euphoria and enhanced analgesia

20

What are the physiological adaptations of stress?

increased cardiovascular tone, repression rate and intermediate metabolism, inhibition of feeding, digesting, growth, reproduction and immunity

21

Where are the effectors of stress located?

Hypothalamus, anterior lobe of the pituitary and the adrenal gland

22

What are the adrenal cortical hormones?

Glucocotricoids and mineralocorticoids

23

What occurs in a fight or flight response?

Increased blood pressure
Glucose enters blood stream
Shut down non emergency services

24

What is included in the HPA axis?

Hypothalamus, anterior Pituitary, Adrenal cortex

25

What neurones are present in the ANS?

Presynaptic neurone whose cell body is in CNS and postsynaptic neurone whose cell body is in peripheral ganglion

26

What is the adrenal gland split into?

Medulla-middle (chromaffin cells which release adrenaline and noradrenaline when signalled- equivalent to postsynaptic neurones so neurocrine)
Cortex- outer

27

What does adrenaline and neuroadrenaline do?

Breaks down glycogen into glucose increasing blood glucose, blood pressure, breathing rate, metabolic rate and causes increased alertness and decreased digestion

28

What hormones do the posterior pituitary secrete?

Oxytocin and ADH
Both made in hypothalamus and travel down neuronal axons

29

What does the pineal gland do?

produces melatonin which controls circadian rhythms
Inhibits release of LH and FSH
Calcifies in early adult hood so is visible in X-rays

30

What is fainting due to shock called?

Vagal syncope