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Flashcards in Lymphatic System Deck (30)
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1

How many litres per day are collected as interstitial fluid?

3 litres

2

What are the vessels called in the lymph system?

Lymphatics

3

What cells are present in the lymph system?

Lymphocytes (B, T, Natural Killer cells)

4

How much fluid goes into the lymphatic system per day?

20 litres
17 reabsorbed

5

What are the three main parts of the Lymphatic system?

Lymph

6

Why doesn't lymph contain red blood cells?

Too large to fit through the capillary membrane

7

What organs are important in the Lymph system?

Tonsils, Adenoids, Thymus, Spleen

8

Where are lymphatic capillaries not present?

Bones, bone marrow, teeth and the CNS as have own drainage system

9

What are lymphatic capillaries made from?

endothelial cells
Form flaplike minivalves

10

What causes the movement of lymph through vessels?

Skeletal muscle movement, pressure changes in the thorax while breathing and adjacent artery pulsation, large lymphatics contain smooth muscle

11

Where are lymphocytes found and mature?

Loose reticular connective tissue that makes up lymph nodes and some lymph organs

12

What are MALTs?

Mucosa associated lymphoid tissues e.g. tonsils and Peyer's patches and vermiform appendix

13

What is the role of Lymph Nodes?

Serve as a filter, traps antigens, processes antigen and presents processed antigens to T cells

14

Where do afferent lymphatics enter?

Convex surface

15

Where do efferent lymphatics leave?

Hilium

16

What is a Follicular dendritic cell?

Located in germinal centres
form antigen antibody complexes which retain antigens for months
increase amount of memory B cells

17

What are Antigen presenting cells?

B cells and Macrophages that are equipped with special immonostimulatory receptors that allow for activation of T cells

18

What is the inflammatory response?

The initial reaction of the body to an antigen

19

What mediates the inflammatory response?

Neutrophils and or macrophages

20

What is Humoral immunity?

B lymphocytes produce antibodies tha transform into plasma cells that synthesise and secrete specific antibodies

21

What is cell-mediated immunity?

T cells need antigen presenting cells (macrophages and B lymphocytes) to recognise antigens

22

What is cell mediated immunity important in defence against?

Viral, fungal and mycobacterial infections, tumour cells and transplant rejection

23

What do B cells do?

Attack invaders outside cells

24

What do T cells do?

Attack invades inside cells

25

What causes lymph nodes to swell?

As lymph nodes figt infection the germinal centres fill with lymphocytes which causes swelling and pain

26

What is the function of the spleen?

Filters blood
Antigen presentation by APCs, activated and proliferation of B and T lymphocytes and produces antibodies, removes macromolecular antigens from blood, removed old erythrocytes and platelets, retrieves iron from haemoglobin

27

Why is it okay to remove the spleen?

Liver and bone marrow will destroy old blood cells

28

What are the problems with removing the spleen?

increases risk of infected by encapsulated bacteria and malaria, DVT and pulmonary embolism threefold

29

What is the role of the thymus?

Maturation of bone marrow derived stem cells into immunocompetent T cells- thymic cell education

30

When does the thymus become mostly fat?

late teens