Flashcards in Cartilage Deck (46)
What does avascular mean?
No blood supply
What does cartilage have a lot of?
What cells produce the extracellular matrix?
What leads to a ready diffusion of substances between chondrocytes and blood vessels?
Large ratio of glycosaminoglycans to type II collagen
What is the Proteoglycan structure in cartilage ground substance?
100 glycosaminoglycans attach to core protein
hyaluronic acid molecules are interwoven with collagen fibrils
How does a hydrated gel form?
Negative charges on the GAG
What are the three main types of cartilage?
What does the matrix of the Hyaline cartilage contain?
Proteoglycans, hyaluronic acid and type II collagen
What does the matrix of the elastic cartilage contain?
Same as Hyaline but also with elastic fibrils and lamellae
What does the matrix of the Fibrocartilage contain?
Same as Hyaline but also has Type I collagen
In Hyaline what cells are present?
Why is Hyaline cartilage important in early development?
Precursor for the bones that develop by endochondral ossification
Where is Hyaline cartilage found?
Articulating surfaces, parts of the rib cage, nose, trachea, bronchi and larynx
What is the perichondrium?
Covers the margin of cartilage
Contains fibroblast like cells that develop into chondroblasts then chondrocytes
What is appositional growth?
Growth from the periphery
What are dividing chondrocytes called?
Isogenous groups - do this deeper in cartilage so is interstitial growth
What gives cartilage resilience to varying pressure loads?
Highly hydrated and movement of water in the matrix
What is different about the territorial matrix?
What is a lacuna?
Surrounds the chondrocyte
What do pressure loads applied to cartilage create?
signals that direct the synthetic activity of chondrocytes
When tarsal bone forms where is the perichondrium?
At non-articulating surfaces to develop into joint capsule- at the sides
Where is cartilage on a long bone?
At the articulating surface and epiphyseal growth plate (no perichondrium at either site)
What do elastic fibres in Elastic cartilage mean?
Its more elastic and does no calcify
Where is elastic cartilage found?
External ear, external acoustic meatus, epiglottis and Eustachian
Why is Elastic cartilage darker than Hyaline cartilage in H and E stain?
Elastin stains darker
What cells are present in Fibrocartilage?
Chondrocytes and Fibroblasts
What is Fibrocartilage a combination of?
Dense regular connective tissue and hyaline cartilage
What is different about Fibrocartilage to the other two types?
Where is Fibrocartilage found?
intervertebral discs, articular discs on the sternoclavicular and temporomandibular joints, menisci of the knee joint and pubic symphysis