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Flashcards in Cartilage Deck (46)
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1

What does avascular mean?

No blood supply

2

What does cartilage have a lot of?

Extracellular matrix

3

What cells produce the extracellular matrix?

Chondrocytes

4

What leads to a ready diffusion of substances between chondrocytes and blood vessels?

Large ratio of glycosaminoglycans to type II collagen

5

What is the Proteoglycan structure in cartilage ground substance?

Core protein
100 glycosaminoglycans attach to core protein
hyaluronic acid molecules are interwoven with collagen fibrils

6

How does a hydrated gel form?

Negative charges on the GAG

7

What are the three main types of cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage
Elastic cartilage
Fibrocartilage

8

What does the matrix of the Hyaline cartilage contain?

Proteoglycans, hyaluronic acid and type II collagen

9

What does the matrix of the elastic cartilage contain?

Same as Hyaline but also with elastic fibrils and lamellae

10

What does the matrix of the Fibrocartilage contain?

Same as Hyaline but also has Type I collagen

11

In Hyaline what cells are present?

Chondrocytes only

12

Why is Hyaline cartilage important in early development?

Precursor for the bones that develop by endochondral ossification

13

Where is Hyaline cartilage found?

Articulating surfaces, parts of the rib cage, nose, trachea, bronchi and larynx

14

What is the perichondrium?

Covers the margin of cartilage
Contains fibroblast like cells that develop into chondroblasts then chondrocytes

15

What is appositional growth?

Growth from the periphery

16

What are dividing chondrocytes called?

Isogenous groups - do this deeper in cartilage so is interstitial growth

17

What gives cartilage resilience to varying pressure loads?

Highly hydrated and movement of water in the matrix

18

What is different about the territorial matrix?

highly sulphated

19

What is a lacuna?

Surrounds the chondrocyte

20

What do pressure loads applied to cartilage create?

signals that direct the synthetic activity of chondrocytes

21

When tarsal bone forms where is the perichondrium?

At non-articulating surfaces to develop into joint capsule- at the sides

22

Where is cartilage on a long bone?

At the articulating surface and epiphyseal growth plate (no perichondrium at either site)

23

What do elastic fibres in Elastic cartilage mean?

Its more elastic and does no calcify

24

Where is elastic cartilage found?

External ear, external acoustic meatus, epiglottis and Eustachian

25

Why is Elastic cartilage darker than Hyaline cartilage in H and E stain?

Elastin stains darker

26

What cells are present in Fibrocartilage?

Chondrocytes and Fibroblasts

27

What is Fibrocartilage a combination of?

Dense regular connective tissue and hyaline cartilage

28

What is different about Fibrocartilage to the other two types?

No perichondrium

29

Where is Fibrocartilage found?

intervertebral discs, articular discs on the sternoclavicular and temporomandibular joints, menisci of the knee joint and pubic symphysis

30

What can fibrocartilage do?

Act as a shock absorber and resist shearing forces