Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (33)
What membranes does the respiratory system contain?
What is the outer Serosa membrane and pleura called?
What is the inner Serosa membrane and pleura called?
What is the pleural cavity filled with?
Air, Blood, Pus and watery transudate or exudate
How can fluid be drained from a pleural cavity?
Inserting a wide-bore needle through the 7th intercostal space posteriorly
Where do intercostal nerves run?
Border of ribs
How could the lung cause paralysis of one side of the diaphragm?
Tumour that impinges on the phrenic nerve
What kind of lung tumours can cause wasting of the arm/hand?
Brachial plexus, pancoast
What are the characteristics of Horner's syndrome?
Constricted pupil, weak droopy upper eyelid, less sweating
What can cause a hoarse voice?
Tumour that impinges the left recurrent laryngeal nerve (loops under the aorta) Or and aneurism of the aorta
What are the extrapulmonary components of the respiratory system?
Nasal cavity, pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Primary Bronchi
What are the intrapulmonary components of the respiratory system?
Secondary Bronchi, Bronchioles, Terminal Bronchioles, Respiratory bronchioles, Alveolar ducts, alveoli
What happens to thickness of the walls and sizes of the lumens as you travel from the nasal cavity to the Alveoli?
Walls of passageways become thinner and lumens decrease in diameter
What type of epithelium is present until the largest bronchioles?
Pseudostratisfied - cilia and goblet cells
What type of epithelium is present in the terminal bronchioles?
Simple columnar - cilia and clara cells
What type of epithelium is present in the Respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts?
Simple Cuboidal- clara and small amount of cilia
What type of epithelium is present in the Alveoli?
What occurs in the Olfactory region of the Nasal cavity and what cells are present?
Responds to odours
No goblet cells or motile cilia
What does each vocal cord of the larynx contain?
Vocal ligament and vocalis muscle
Where does the trachea divide into two primary bonchi?
What part of the trachea ossifies with age?
C shapes rings
What ion channel absence causes cystic fibrosis?
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator
Why does the absence of the channel cause an issue in cystic fibrosis?
Less chloride ion transport so less water removed so mucus not secreted and hydrated properly so more viscous
What is the difference between cartilage in primary and secondary bronchi?
Cartilage is arranged in crescent plates in secondary rather than rings
What supplies blood to the lung?
How is a bronchiole kept open as has no cartilage or glands?
What causes asthma?
Due to everyone having absence of cartilage in walls of bronchioles, this means they can close down if smooth muscle contraction is too excessive, bronchoconstriction can become excessive in asthma
What are clara cells?
Secrete surfactant lipoprotein which prevent the wall sticking together during expression
Secrete clara cell protein which is a measurable marker for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum
Why are there no goblet cells in the terminal bronchioles?
Prevents from drowning in own mucus