Chapters 22-25 Study Guide Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Chapters 22-25 Study Guide > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 22-25 Study Guide Deck (49)
Loading flashcards...
1

Natural selection

Differential success in the reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from the interaction of organisms with their environment. Evolution occurs when natural selection causes changes in relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool.

2

Evolution

All the changes that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today.

3

Taxonomy

Ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences, leading to a classification scheme; the branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse froms of life.

4

Artificial selection

The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurence of desirable traits.

5

Homologous structures

Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry

6

Analogous structures

Structures that are similar due to convergent evolution rather than to descent from a common ancestor with the same trait.

7

Vestigial structures

Structures of marginal if any importance to an organism. They are structures that are historical remnants of structures that had importance in ancestors.

8

Gene pool

The total aggregate of genes in a population at any one time.

9

Genetic drift

Unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next because of a population's finite size.

10

Bottleneck effect

Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer representative of the original population.

11

Founder's effect

Genetic drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population, with the result that the new population's gene pool is not reflective of the original population.

12

Gene flow

Genetic additions or subtractions from a population resulting from the movement of fertile individuals or gametes

13

Fitness

The contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation reflective to the contributions of other individuals

14

Sexual selection

Natural selection for mating success

15

Speciation

The origin of a new species in evolution

16

Heterozygote advantage

Greater reproductive success of heterozygote individuals compared to homozygotes; tends to preserve variation in gene pools

17

Taxon (plural taxa)

The named taxonomic unit at any given level of classification

18

Phylogenetic tree

A branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships

19

Cladogram

A diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics among species.

20

Directional selection

natural selection that favors variants of one extreme

21

Disruptive selection

natural selection that favors individuals on both extremes of a phenotypic range over intermediate phenotypes

22

Stabalizing selection

natural selection that favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes

23

Reproductive isolation

the exsistence of biological features (barriers) that impede members of two species from producing viable, fertile offspring

24

Habitat Isolation

Two species that occupy different habitats within the same area may encounter each other rarely even though they are not isolated by obvious physical barriers such as mountain ranges.

25

Temporal Isolation

Species that breed during different times of the day, different seasons, or different years cannot mix their gametes

26

Behavioral Isolation

Courtship rituals that attract mates and other behaviors unique to a species are effective reproductive barriers, even between closely related species

27

Mechanical Isolation

Morphological differences can prevent successful mating

28

Gametic Isoltation

Sperm of one species may not be able to fertilize the eggs of another species. MAny mechanisms can produce this isolation

29

What is the heirarchial classification starting from Domain and ending with Speices?

Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

30

What are the 5 conditions for Hardy-weinberg equilibrium?

1. Population must be very large
2. No mutations
3. Random mating
4. No natural selection
5. No immigration or emigration