Chapter 7 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Vocabulary Deck (35)
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1

Selective Permeability

Allows some substances to cross it more easily than others

2

Amphipathic Molecule

A molecule with both a hydrophobic region and a hydrophillic region.

3

Fluid Mosaic Model

The membrane is a fluid structure with a "mosaic" of various proteins embedded in or attached to a double layer of phospholipids.

4

Integral proteins

Penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bi-layer, usually trans-membrane proteins

5

Peripheral proteins

Loosely bound into the membrane, usually connected to the exposed parts of integral proteins.

6

Cell recongnition

A cell's ability to distinguish one type of neighboring cell from another. It is crucial to the functioning of an organism. Glycolipids and glycoproteins are involved in this process.

7

Glyco-

Used to refer to the prescence of carbohydrates

8

Glycolipids

When a carbohydrate is covalently bonded to a lipid or lipids.

9

Glycoproteins

When a carbohydrate is covalently bonded to a protein or proteins.

10

Transport Protein

Function by having a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions can use as a tunnel through the membrane

11

Aquaporins

Channel proteins that allow water to pass through

12

Carrier Proteins

Hold onto their passengers and change shape in a way that shuttles them across the membrane.

13

Diffusion

The tendency for molecules of any substance to spread out evenly into the available space. The molecules will continue to spread across the membrane until both solutions have equal concentrations. From more concentrated to less concentrated.

14

Concentration Gradient

A measurement of how the concentration of something changes from one place to another

15

Passive transport

The diffusion of a substance across a membrane without the use of energy.

16

Hypo-tonic solution

Less salinity, causes the cell to swell

17

Hyper-tonic solution

More salinity, causes the cell to shrink

18

Osmosis

The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called osmosis.

19

Tonicity

The ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water.

20

Osmoregulation

The control of water balance

21

Turgid

firm

22

Flaccid

Limp

23

Plasmolysis

The cell loses water to its surroundings and shrinks. In a plant, the membrane pulls away from the wall and causes the plant to wilt.

24

Facilitated Diffusion

Molecules and ions pass through the lipid bi-layer with the help of transport proteins with the concentration gradient.

25

Gated channels

A stimulus causes them to open or close, the stimulus can be electrical or chemical.

26

Active Transport

To transport a molecule against the concentration gradient. This requires energy.

27

Sodium-Potassium Pump

Exchanges sodium(Na+) for Potassium(K+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells.

28

Voltage

Electrical potential energy- a separation of opposite charges

29

Membrane Potential

The voltage across the membrane.

30

Electrochemical Gradient

The combination of forces acting on an ion.