Chapter 6 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Vocabulary Deck (24)
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1

Prokaryotic cells

No nucleus
DNA in an unbound region
No membrane bound organelles
Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane

2

Cytoskeleton

The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell.

3

Cell

The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live. A cell is the microcosm that demonstrates most of the themes shown in Chapter one.

4

Light microscopes

Visible light is passes through the specimen and then through the glass lenses. The lenses refract the light in such a way, that the image of the specimen is magnified as it is projected into the eye.

5

Magnification

The ratio of an object's image to its real size

6

Resolution

A measure of the clarity of the image.

7

Electron Microscope

Focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or onto its surface. There are two types: the Scanning Electron Microscope and Transmission electron microscope

8

Cell fractionation

To take cells apart and separate the major organelles from one another.

9

Centrifuges/Ultracentrifuges

Powerful machines that spin the test tube full of mixtures of disrupted cells and separates them by size and density.

10

Cytosol

A semi fluid substance in which organelles are found

11

Cytoplasm

The entire region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane

12

Pore complex

The pore complex lines each pore and regulates the entry of macro-molecules and particles.

13

Nuclear lamina

A net-like array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope.

14

Chromosomes

Structures that carry the genetic information. Each chromosome is made up of chromatin, a complex of proteins and DNA.

15

Nucleolus

RNA is synthesized from instructions in the DNA here. Also, proteins are imported from the cytoplasm are assembled with r RNA into large and small ribosomal sub units in the nucleolus.

16

Ribosomes

Made up of r RNA and proteins, organelles that carry out protein synthesis.

17

Smooth ER(functions)

Synthesizes lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, and detoxification of drugs and poisons.

18

Rough ER(functions)

Make secretory proteins and is a membrane factory for the cell. Grows in place by adding membrane proteins and phospholipids to its own membrane.

19

Golgi Apparatus

Products of the ER are modified, stored,and sent to other destinations. Especially extensive in cells specialized in secretion.

20

Lysosomes

Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest all kinds of macro-molecules. If a lysosome breaks open, the enzymes are not very active, because the cytosol has a neutral pH. However, excessive leakage from a large number of lysosomes can destroy a cell by auto-digestion.

21

Vacuoles(functions)

Store food, pump excess water out.

22

Peroxisomes

Specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane.

23

motility

The term cell MOTILITY encompasses both changes in cell location and more limited movements of parts of the cell.

24

Cytoskeleton(components)

fibers, including micro-tubules, micro-filaments, and intermediate filaments