Chapters 40-48 Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 40-48 Study Guide Deck (71)
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What are the four types of tissues, and what are some examples of each type?

1. Nervous- nerve cells
2. Epithelial- lining of the intestines, outer skin, lining of the blood vessels
3. Connective-(3 types of fibers: collagenous, elastic, and reticular) fat, cartilage, blood, and bone
4. Muscular-(2 types: cardiac and smooth) heart, walls of the digestive tract


List all the parts of the digestive system.

Oral cavity, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, liver, gall bladder, appendix, ascending and descending colon, rectum, stomach, pyloric sphincter, transverse colon, small intestine, anus, sigmoid colon, and cardiac orifice.


What are the three places that actively take part in digestion, and where are the enzymes that are used in digestion of food in these parts made?

Oral Cavity- Salivary Glands
Stomach- Gall Bladder/Liver
Small Intestine- I HAVE NO ANSWER!!


What are the four parts of the colon?

The ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon.


Where does deoxygenated blood come from?

The body


Where does oxygenated blood come from?

The lungs


What are some examples of barriers that prevent invaders from entering the system?

Mucus, oils, skin, hair, ear wax, tears, saliva, stomach acid, and sweat


What is the pathway of a nervous system response?



List the parts of the brain.

Parietal lobe, cerebrum, corpus callosum, frontal lobe, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary, midbrain, the pons, the medulla oblongata, cerebellum, fissure, occipital lobe


What is the pathway that food takes in the digestive system?

1. Oral Cavity/Mouth- food is put into the mouth, where it is masticated(chewd) and salivary glands produce amylase to break down sugars in the food. This is mechanical digestion, and the food is now bolus.
2. The bolus goes down the esophagus(peristalsis- wave movements, helps move the food), where it is not digested, but just transported to the stomach.
3. In the stomach, gastric juices(acidic, pH 2) and enzymes break down proteins, and the food becomes a soupy liquid called chyme. Walls inside the stomach are lined with mucus to prevent the acidity of the stomach and enzymes from digesting the organ.
4. The chyme goes through the pyloric sphincter to the small intestines. The deodenum adds digestive juices and enzymes from the pancreas, gall bladder and liver. The Jejunem and Ileum absorb nutrients and some water. The hepatic portal vein filters the chyme though the liver.
5. The chyme goes into the cecum, and then to the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon- where the rest of the water is absorbed and material is compacted. Material moves by peristalsis and is considered feces.
6. Feces are stored in the rectum
7. From the rectum, the feces exit the body via the anus.


Define mastication.

To grind, crush, and chew (food) with the teeth in preparation for swallowing.


Define peristalsis.

The involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wavelike movements that push the contents of the canal forward.


What is bolus?

A bolus is a small rounded mass of a substance, especially of chewed food at the moment of swallowing.


What is chyme?

Chyme is the pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food.


What are the parts of the respiratory system?

The parts of the respiratory system include the nasal cavity, the oral cavity, the pharynx, the larynx(esophagus), the trachea, the lungs, the left bronchus, the right bronchus, the bronchioles, the diaphram, and the alveoli.


What structure is shared by both the respiratory and digestive system?

The pharynx


Where does oxygenated blood enter into the heart?

Through the pulmonary veins


Where does deoxygenated blood enter the heart?

Through the superior and inferior vena cava


What is metabolism?

The totality of an organism's chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways.


What is thermoregulation?

Thermoregulation is the maitenance of internal body temperature within a tolerable range.


What is the definition of absorption?

The uptake of small nutrient molecules by an organism's own body, the third main stage of food processing, following digestion.


Define digestion.

Digestion is the process of breaking down food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb.


What is a tropic hormone?

A hormone that has another endocrine gland as a target.


What is the central nervous system?

The brain and the spinal cord.


Describe what it means to be autonomic.

The autonomic nervous system is a subdivision of the motor nervous system of vertebrates that regulates the internal environment, it consists of the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric divisions.


What does it mean to be somatic?

The somatic nervous system is the branch of the motor division of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system composed of motor neurons that carry signals to skeletal muscles in resonse to external stimuli.


What is the resting potential?

The membrane potential characteristic of a nonconducting, excitable cell, with the inside of the cell more negative than the outside.


What is action potential?

Action potential is a rapid change in the membrane potential of an excitable cell, caused by stimulus-triggered, selective-opening and closing of voltage-sensitive gates in sodium and potassium ion channels.


What is acetylcholine?

One of the most common neurotransmitters; functions by binding to receptors and altering the permeability of the postsynaptic membrane to specific ions, either depolarizing or hyperpolarizing the membrane.


What is a neurotransmitter?

A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger released from the synaptic terminal of a neuron at a chemical synapse that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to and stimulates the postsynaptic cell.