Flashcards in Chapter 13 and 14 Study Guide-Bellringers Deck (63)
What is a genome?
The complete complement of an organism's genes
Which of the following statements about genes is incorrect?
One gene type only is used in a specific cell type
Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction are different in that
Asexual reproduction is utilized only by fungi and protists, whereas sexual reproduction is utilized only by plants and animals
Is the transmission of traits from one generation to the next
Shows that offspring differ somewhat in appearance from parents and siblings
Is the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation
One parent produces genetically identical offspring by mitosis
any individual that is genetically identical to its parents is a clone
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
What is a karyotype?
A karyotype is an ordered, visual representation of the chromosomes in a cell
By examining a karyotype, it is possible to determine:
A) which of two related plant forms is a gametophyte, and which is a sporophyte.
B) the sex of an animal.
D) A and B only
The human X and Y chromosomes are
called sex chromosomes because they determine the sex of the offspring
If the liver cells of an animal have 24 chromosomes, how many chromosomes do its sperm cells have?
Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16?
There are 8 homologous pairs.
Which of the following is the term for a human cell that contains 22 pairs of autosomes and two X chromosomes?
A female somatic cell
Eukaryotic sexual life cycles show tremendous variation. Of the following elements, which do all sexual life cycles have in common?
alternation of generations
meiosis, fertilization, and gametes
In animals, meiosis results in gametes, and fertilization results in
Which of the following is an example of alternation of generations?
B) A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid pollen grain (gametophyte).
After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is
D) haploid, and the chromosomes are composed of two chromatids
When does the synaptonemal complex disappear?
late prophase of meiosis I
Tetrads of chromosomes are aligned at the center of the cell; independent assortment soon follows.
Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs; crossing over may occur.
Centromeres of sister chromatids uncouple and chromatids separate.
Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I?
Homologous chromosomes are separated.
Which of the following is true of the process of meiosis?
Four haploid cells result
Crossing over occurs...
during Prophase I of meiosis
How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that have replicated their DNA and are just about to begin meiosis?
They have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the DNA
Which of the following terms belongs with the words synapsis, tetrads, and chiasmata?
A cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically identical.
Only true for MITOSIS