Chapter 13 and 14 Study Guide-Bellringers Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 and 14 Study Guide-Bellringers Deck (63)
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1

What is a genome?

The complete complement of an organism's genes

2

Which of the following statements about genes is incorrect?

One gene type only is used in a specific cell type

3

Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction are different in that

Asexual reproduction is utilized only by fungi and protists, whereas sexual reproduction is utilized only by plants and animals

4

heredity

Is the transmission of traits from one generation to the next

5

variation

Shows that offspring differ somewhat in appearance from parents and siblings

6

genetics

Is the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation

7

asexual reproduction

One parent produces genetically identical offspring by mitosis

8

clone

any individual that is genetically identical to its parents is a clone

9

sexual reproduction

Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.

10

What is a karyotype?

A karyotype is an ordered, visual representation of the chromosomes in a cell

11

By examining a karyotype, it is possible to determine:
A) which of two related plant forms is a gametophyte, and which is a sporophyte.
B) the sex of an animal.
D) A and B only

D)

12

The human X and Y chromosomes are

called sex chromosomes because they determine the sex of the offspring

13

If the liver cells of an animal have 24 chromosomes, how many chromosomes do its sperm cells have?

12

14

Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16?

There are 8 homologous pairs.

15

Which of the following is the term for a human cell that contains 22 pairs of autosomes and two X chromosomes?

A female somatic cell

16

Eukaryotic sexual life cycles show tremendous variation. Of the following elements, which do all sexual life cycles have in common?
alternation of generations
meiosis
fertilization
gametes
spores

meiosis, fertilization, and gametes

17

In animals, meiosis results in gametes, and fertilization results in

a zygote

18

Which of the following is an example of alternation of generations?

B) A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid pollen grain (gametophyte).

19

After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is

D) haploid, and the chromosomes are composed of two chromatids

20

When does the synaptonemal complex disappear?

late prophase of meiosis I

21

Tetrads of chromosomes are aligned at the center of the cell; independent assortment soon follows.

B) II

22

Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs; crossing over may occur.

A) I

23

Centromeres of sister chromatids uncouple and chromatids separate.

VII

24

Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I?

Homologous chromosomes are separated.

25

Which of the following is true of the process of meiosis?

Four haploid cells result

26

Crossing over occurs...

during Prophase I of meiosis

27

How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that have replicated their DNA and are just about to begin meiosis?

They have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the DNA

28

Which of the following terms belongs with the words synapsis, tetrads, and chiasmata?

Crossing over!

29

A cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically identical.

Only true for MITOSIS

30

Homologous chromosomes synapse and crossing over occurs.

True for MEIOSIS 1 only