Flashcards in Chapter 2 Vocabulary Deck (39)
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into smaller components by chemical reactions.
Elements that are required for the body in minuscule amounts
An atom is the smallest unit of an element.
An uncharged particle in the nucleus of an atom.
A positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom.
A negatively charged particle surrounding the nucleus of an atom, it is much smaller that the particles in the nucleus.
The atomic nucleus consists of both protons and neutrons.
The unit DALTON is used to measure atoms as well as other small atomic particles.
The number of protons.
The sum of the protons and neutrons of an atom.
The average of all the isotopes.
An isotope of an element, is that same element, only with a different number of neutrons.
A radioactive isotope is one in which the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy.
Energy is the capacity to cause change(to do work).
The different states of potential energy are called energy levels.
Potential energy is the energy that matter posses because of location/structure.
The 3-D space in which an electron is found most of the time(90%).
The outer electrons of an atom.
The outermost electron shell of an atom.
When atoms are close enough to each other, they are attracted and form chemical bonds.
A covalent bond is the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms.
Two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond are a molecule.
The structural formula represents both the atoms, and their bonding as a small diagram or chart(drawings such as: H-H).
The abbreviated way of writing the structural formula(H^2, instead of H-H)
Double Covalent Bond
When an atom shares two pairs of electrons with another atom.
The bonding capacity is called the atom's valence, it is usually equal to the number of unpaired electrons in the outer shell.
The attraction of a particular kind of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond. The more electronegative, the more strongly it pulls the electrons toward itself.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
When a pair of electrons are shared evenly between two atoms.