Flashcards in Chapter 2 - History/Organization of Police Deck (27)
When did policing first emerge?
The 9th century in Europe.
What was the first major system of policing?
The Tithing System.
How was the tithing system organized?
Citizens were organized into groups of 10 families who were responsible for their group's behaviour. 10 groups came together to become a 100, and they elected a leader from among them to be their shire-reeve.
What did the phrase "shire-reeve" evolve into?
What came after the tithing system?
The Frankpledge System (11C)
How was the Frankpledge system different from the tithing system?
Citizens pledged to uphold the law, courts became more formalized, shire-reeves powers became limited to enforcing the law (took on less of a judge role).
In the Frankpledge system, who dealt with smaller crimes?
In the Frankpledge system, what evolved to deal with more serious matters?
A jury system.
What is a constable? And what did they deal with in the Frankpledge system?
The lowest rank in the police force, they dealt primarily with local matters.
What system emerged after the Frankpledge system?
The Statue of Winchester (13C)
What did the Statute of Winchester do to improve on the justice system?
It established a code that dictated police practices, it formalized what was already being done,
Who replaced the shire-reeves?
Justices of the peace.
What is the watch and ward system?
A 24 hour surveillance system. Night was watch, day was ward.
After calls for reform to the justice system, in what form did it arrive?
Sir Robert Peel's vision.
What was Sir Robert Peel's official name for the legislation?
The Metropolitan Police Act.
What was Peel's main focus with the Metropolitan Police Act?
To prevent crime and disorder, not just to enforce laws.
What are three key principles of Peel's vision?
Success depends on the approval of the public.
Force should only be used when necessary.
Impartiality is key.
How is the police hierarchy set up today?
There is senior administration that is accountable to the community through police service boards, members of the board are there to look over police business.
What does the board in charge of modern day police consider to be success?
They use local crime as an indicator, They use it to gauge the ability of the organization to successfully investigate and prosecute crime.
Can police take credit for reduced crime rates?
No, it is almost always a statistically insignificant decrease, and even then it is always explained by other circumstances.
What determines budget increases in modern day police organizations?
Whether or not the investment will prevent or reduce crime and whether the public will support the investment.
What percentage of police calls involve crime related activities?
What has the introduction of the motor vehicle to policing caused to happen?
The relationship between the police and the public becomes less significant and the police seem more distant.
What does community policing often involve?
Efforts to establish meaningful relationships and partnerships between the police and the community.
What has police patrol led to?
Incidence policing (aka reactive policing).
Numbers of active police officers have never been higher? T/F?