Flashcards in Ch. 9 - Correctional Institutions Deck (40)
What are Canada's three correctional systems?
Youth, adult provincial, and adult federal.
What ages are held in youth correctional systems?
12 - 17.
Where did Canada's first federal prison open and when?
Kingston in 1835.
According to Foucault, what were prisons designed to create?
What are docile bodies?
Compliant and passive prisoners who did not challenge the authority of the prison.
How did the prison make docile bodies?
Denial freedom, arbitrary prison rules, harsh punishment, and substandard living conditions.
Until when did the Constitution allow the whipping of inmates?
When was the physical abuse of inmates totally abolished?
When was Kingston investigated?
What was discovered when Kingston was investigated?
Whipping for staring at guards, food unfit for human consumption, men and women and children all housed together, mentally ill and social "misfits" also imprisoned.
What were the two systems of punishment in 19th century North America?
The Pennsylvania System and the Auburn System.
What were the characteristics of the Pennsylvania system?
Small cells based around segregation, forcing criminals to think about their crimes and repent, heavily Quaker based, given only a Bible.
What were the characteristics of the Auburn system?
Based on the New York State Prison, advocated hard labour as the path to reform, distinguished by tiers or blocks, and it's circular.
Whose ideas were the tiers or blocks in a prison system based on?
Jeremy Bentham's panopticon.
What are the five types of correctional institutions?
Minimum-security, medium-security, maximum-security, multi-level institutions, and special handling units.
What is characteristic of minimum-security institutions?
No armed security posts, no movement restrictions except at night.
What is characteristic of medium-security institutions?
Look like maximum-security prisons, and more freedom of movement than max but less than min.
What percentage of offenders are serving time in medium-security institutions?
What is characteristic of maximum-security institutions?
Rigidly controlled, armed security, housing dangerous offenders.
What is characteristic of a special handling unit (SHU)?
Referred to as "super-max-prison," actually classified as max security, holds the most dangerous inmates.
What criteria are used to determine which security level an offender should be placed?
Escape risk, risk to public safety in the event of an escape, and level of supervision required within the institution.
What does the theory of risk assessment focus on?
The social psychology of criminal behaviour.
What does the theory of risk assessment state?
That individual and social/situational factors combine to create values, cognitions, and personality contexts in offenders,that facilitate criminal behaviour.
Describe the risk in the risk-need-responsivity model.
An offender's risk to reoffend can be predicted and reduced if the level of service provided matches the level of risk of the person.
What is the difference between static and dynamic risks?
Static risks are factors that can't be controlled by the state. E.g., how the offender will behave in prison.
Dynamic risks are things that can be changed. E.g., substance abuse, antisocial attitudes, education level.
What are static risks used to assess?
The security level of the institution.
What are dynamic risks used to assess?
The individual offender's treatment plan.
Describe the need in the risk-need-responsivity model.
Services that must address the criminogenic needs of an offender (i.e., those that are directly related to an offender's criminal behaviour).
Describe the responsively in the risk-need-responsivity model.
The method in which the needs are administered.