Flashcards in Ch. 10 - Community Corrections Deck (38)
Most offenders are sentenced to what?
Supervision in the community.
What is the use of supervision in the community driven by?
The escalating costs of incarceration, the questionable deterrent value of incarceration, the recognition that community sanctions can help with rehab and reintegration, and the ability to target scarce resources at higher risk offenders.
How much does it cost to incarcerate each gender per year?
Around $150,000 for males and $200,000 for females.
What is the public's opinion of community corrections?
People may believe in the rehabilitative effectiveness of community corrections, but they still don't want offenders in their communities.
How are community sentences viewed in terms of harshness by offenders and the public?
The public sees it as being soft on crime, but the offenders often see it as more punitive than incarceration.
Why are community sentences seen as less desirable by offenders?
In jail, there don't get much freedom or have much responsibility. In the community, there are a lot of hoops to jump through.
What sentences are included in the umbrella term "community sentences"?
Probation, intensive supervison, conditional sentences, and community services.
In what ways can an offender be sentenced to probation?
As a stand alone sentence, as part of a conditional discharge, as a condition of a suspended sentence, as part of an intermittent sentence, following a prison term.
What is the maximum penalty for breach of probation?
If it is treated as an indictable offence, then the max sentence is 2 years in prison.
Who was the first person to lay the foundation for probation?
John Augustus - a Bostonian shoe maker.
Who did Canada use to employ as probation officers?
How are most probation officers now recruited?
Via a pre-employment training model.
What are the primary responsibilities that accompany being a probation officer?
Assessment of clients' risks/needs, provision of individuals case management, and preparation of pre-sentence reports.
What are the two dimensions of probation officers?
Supervision and support.
What are pre-sentence reports?
Assessments of offenders, covering background and often a sentence recommendation.
What type of background information is included in pre-sentence reports?
Criminal history, education, mental and physical health, family, and victim impact information.
What percentage of judges are content with pre-sentence reports?
What percentage of probation officers feel qualified to fill out pre-sentence reports?
What are some requirements of the position of probation officer?
Establishing rapport and maintaining the proper balance between enforcement and support.
What recent factors have led probation officers to take a more control/surveillance approach?
Increasing caseloads, concerns with accountability, and an increasing number of special offenders.
What is intensive supervision?
The middle ground between probation and incarceration.
What is the goal of intensive supervision? How is it different than probation?
Rehabilitation. Treatment is more stringent.
What does intensive supervision involve?
More rigorous/restrictive conditions, increased monitoring, more intensive treatment interventions, and reduced caseloads for the probation officers.
What are some assumptions made about intensive supervision?
That it provides better surveillance of and support for offenders, reduces prison admissions and operational costs, and offers greater protection of the public.
Is there any evidence supporting the assumption that intensive supervision decreases prison overcrowding?
What are approaches involving treatment associated with?
Reductions in recidivism.
What explanation is given for why intensive supervision does not decrease prison overcrowding?
Those under intensive supervision are more likely to be caught breaching conditions, and thus are more likely to be incarcerated.
What is a conditional sentence?
A convicted individual who could have been sentenced to less than two years can be sentenced to serve that time in the community.
Is a conditional sentence the same as probation?