Flashcards in Ch. 12 - Populations in Focus Deck (72)
Who does CSC consider to be "older" offenders?
Those over the age of 50.
What proportion of inmates are older offenders?
Approximately 1 in 5.
Is the proportion of older offenders increasing or decreasing?
Increasing because of the aging population.
What should we expect from an aging population? Why is it not the case?
We would expect a reduction in crime rates, but older offenders are more likely to commit crimes like sexual assault and DUI, so it balances out.
What percentage of older offenders were incarcerated while low? What is their risk for recidivism?
10%, they have a low rate of recidivism.
What percentage of older offenders have been in and out of prison their entire lives?
17%; prison is clearly not a deterrent.
What percentage of older offenders are serving their first prison sentence?
What are some issues for older offenders?
Physical health and social/safety challenges.
What are some physical health concerns for older offenders? (5)
The aging process is accelerated in prison; older offenders are more likely to experience chronic health problems and experience them earlier; mobility issues; sensory impairments; and palliative (end of life) care.
How much older do prison inmates often seem?
10 years older than their actual age.
What are contributing factors to the physical health issues faced by older offenders?
Poor diet, substance use and abuse, etc.
What sort of social/safety challenges might older offenders face?
They may experience stresses of incarceration; may be threatened by younger offenders; there is a lack of appropriate programming.
What are some reasons that older offenders may be targeted by younger offenders?
They can't or won't fight back.
What recommendations for older offenders were made by a CSC focus group?
More appropriate programming, appropriately trained staff, a new prison design, development of a strategy.
What has been done to implement the recommendations for older offenders?
What percentage of provincial and federal inmates are women?
12% of provincial; 6% of federal.
What is the fastest growing prison population in the world?
Where were female inmates first housed?
Which women's prison was opened in 1934 and when did it shut down?
Prison for Women (P4W) closed in 2000.
Prior to P4W, women were what?
What were some issues with P4W?
Women were moved away from their families; they couldn't really access targeted programs; women were often abused.
What scandal involving P4W occurred in 1994?
There was a violent confrontation between inmates and correctional staff. Cell extraction teams were sent in and strip searched 8 women. The video tape then got leaked.
What did the Creating Choices (1990) report recommend?
The opening of regional, multi-level institutions.
What institutions came out of the Creating Choices report?
Five multi-level institutions and a healing lodge.
What were the key principles of the Creating Choices institutions?
Empowerment, meaningful and responsible choices, respect and dignity, supportive environment, and shared responsibilities.
Female offenders typically commit what types of crimes?
Non-violent, property, and drug offences.
Who are more likely to be unemployed on admission to corrections? Men or women?
What proportion of provincial and federal inmates have not completed schooling above grade 9?
1/3 of provincial female offenders and 1/2 of federal female offenders.
What proportion of female federal/provincial offenders are aboriginal?
25% of female federal offenders; 30% of provincial federal offenders.