Flashcards in Ch. 15 - Crime Prevention Deck (28)
What is crime intervention?
Any pre-emptive intervention intended to block or reduce the risk of a criminal act occurring or the onset of criminal behaviour within an individual.
What does crime prevention focus on?
How we detect, prosecute, and punish crimes. Specific focus on potential victims and offenders.
How does crime prevention differ from the justice system in its approach to crime?
It is proactive instead of reactive.
What does crime prevention involve?
A problem-oriented approach that stresses flexibility and individualization.
What is key to crime prevention?
Meaningful partnerships between the community and various state agencies.
What does crime prevention prioritize?
Informal social control over formal social control.
How does crime prevention apply to individuals?
They work to improve the functioning of the individual, not to control them.
What are the four dominant crime prevention approaches?
Crime prevention through social development (CPSD), situational crime management (SCP), community crime prevention (CCP), and community and problem-oriented policing (CPP).
What does crime prevention through social development (CPSD) focus on?
The root causes of criminal behaviour.
How does CPSD attempt to prevent crime?
By developing risk-focused interventions and enhancing protective factors (focus on family and schools).
What are the two types of risk?
Environmental or personal.
What are some examples of environmental risks?
Poverty and poor education.
What are some examples of personal risks?
Learning disabilities, addictions, mental health problems, etc.
What do CPSD school programs focus on?
Giving those at risk the necessary life skills such as critical thinking and decision making skills, as well as someone in control.
What do CPSD family programs focus on?
Encouragement and making healthy families.
What does Situational Crime Prevention (SCP) focus on?
The management, design, or manipulation of the immediate physical and human environment so as to remove or reduce opportunities for specific crimes.
What is the key concept for SCP?
A focus on eliminating opportunities for crime; such as graffiti, use of parks, good lighting, good locks, etc.
What are the hypotheses behind SCP?
Most crimes involve motivated offenders and potential victims coming together at a particular time/place, many types of crime are opportunistic, and criminal behaviour is a rational decision-making process.
What three elements are necessary for crime to occur?
Motivated offenders, suitable tarets, and lack of supervision over those targets.
What does SCP seek to do, based on the theories that drive it?
Increase the effort required by the offender, increase the risk to the offender of apprehension, reduce the rewards to the offender, remove people's excuses to commit crime, and reduce provocations.
What does Community Crime Prevention (CCP) do?
Incorporates the community defence model and the community development model.
What is the community defence model?
Mobilizing local residents to watch out for suspicious activities and individuals.
What is the development model?
Promoting the physical, social, and socioeconomic development of a neighbourhood.
What does the CCP focus on?
Developing a cohesive collection of residents who join together to prevent and control crime; emphasizing collective efficacy.
What does community and problem-oriented policing involve?
Contributing to the broader safety, security, and health of a community through strong partnerships with the community and the empowerment of that community; supporting citizen-based initiatives and enforcing informal social control mechanisms in the community.
What is CPP all about?
Partnerships between the community and the police.
How does the partnership between the community and the police in CPP work?
The community comes up with solutions and the police help them implement it.