Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Intro Deck (31)
What are the main components of the justice system?
Police, courts, and corrections.
What are the police responsible for?
Gathering evidence, investigating cases, and testifying in court.
What are courts responsible for?
Determining guilt or innocence.
What are correctional systems for?
To meet out punishments that are determined by the court.
How are corrections primarily imagined?
Prisons and penitentiaries.
What is restorative justice?
An approach to justice that focuses on restoring the harm done to the community by the crime.
What has happened regarding the relationship between the formal justice system and the community lately?
The justice system has fallen behind and cannot fill their roles, and it is left to the community to pick up the slack.
What is the problem with the community's larger role in the justice system?
They are often not equipped to deal with it.
What are the three primary purposes of the justice system?
To control crimes that have already been committed, to prevent future crimes, and to maintain justice.
How is control of crime achieved?
By arrest, prosecution, and punishment.
How is the prevention of crime achieved?
Often similar means as controlling crime; mechanisms such as punishment to deter offenders.
What are the two types of prevention?
General prevention and specific prevention.
What is general prevention?
Deterring others from doing the same.
What is specific prevention?
Deterring the individual from offending again.
Is punishment effective as a deterrent?
Why does society so often choose to use punishment as a deterrent?
Because it gives us the illusion that we are in control of the situation.
What trap do we often fall into when we are faced with evidence that punishment is not effective?
We think that we just need to enact stricter punishments.
What is an example of an informal approach to crime prevention?
The Neighbourhood Watch
What is tough justice?
Where criminals are locked up for long periods during the day.
What is the argument against tough justice?
It's bad for everyone; everyone outside suffers when the inmate gets out and is salty and the inmates themselves suffer during their sentence. Also when the inmates are released they have no viable career choices.
What organization presides over laws in Canada and when were they established?
The Law Reform Commission of Canada. Est. 1977
What is the main tenet of the LRCA?
Guilt, innocence, and any imposed sentence should be determined fairly and in accordance with available evidence.
What is due process?
Fair treatment through the normal judicial system, especially as a citizen's entitlement.
What elements are taken into account when determining the punishment?
The offenders past criminal record, mental state, as well as if it's worth imprisoning them.
The idea of like cases being treated equally is more of a(n) _______.
Ideal than a reality.
How can conflict between various institutions in the justice system be a good thing?
It can lead to much needed changes and improvements.
What factors affect the operation of the criminal justice system?
Multiple mandates, obstacles to information sharing, and the diversity and complexity of the system.
How do multiple mandates affect the justice system?
The police, courts, and corrections have different goals or mandates, and each has a different view on how to meet them.
What do police tend to believe about courts and sentences?
That the sentences given to offenders are too lenient.