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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (71)
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1

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space

2

Weight

The pull of gravity on mass

3

States of Matter

Solid
Liquid
Gas

4

Energy

The capacity to do work or put matter into motion

5

Types of Energy

Kinetic
Potential

6

Forms of Energy

Chemical- stored in bonds of chemical substances
Electrical- Results from movement of charged particles
Mechanical- Directly involved in moving matter
Radiant- Travels in waves (ultraviolet light)

7

Energy form Conversion

-May be converted from one form to another
-Conversion is inefficient (some energy is lost as heat)

8

Elements

Matter is elements
Cannot be broken into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods

9

Human Body Elements (4)

Oxygen
Carbon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
96% of the human body

10

Atoms (overall)

Building blocks for each element
Gives each element its physical and chemical properties
Smallest particles of an element with properties of that element

11

Atoms (make-up)

composed of subatomic particles- protons, neutrons, and electrons
Protons and Neutrons found in nucleus
Electrons orbit nucleus in an electron cloud

12

Atom (nucleus)

Almost entire mass of the atom
Neutrons- Carry no charge
Protons- Carry positive charge

13

Atom (electrons)

Electrons orbit within electron cloud
-carry a negative charge
-1/2000 the mass of a proton
-number of protons and electrons always equal

14

Atom (models)

Planetary model-2D simplified; outdated
Orbital model-3D current model, used by chemists

15

Isotyopes

Structural variations of atoms
Differ in the number of neutrons they contain
Atomic numbers same; mass numbers different

16

Atomic Weight

Average of mass numbers (relative weights) of all isotopes of an atom

17

Molecule vs. Compound

Molecule- 1 type
Compound- multiple types (at least 1)

18

Mixtures

Two or more components physically intermixed
-most matter exists as mixture

19

3 Types of Mixtures

Solutions
Colloids
Suspensions

20

Solutions

Homogeneous mixtures
Solvent- greatest substance, if a liquid; usually water
Solute- present in smaller amounts

21

Colloids

Heterogeneous mixtures
Larger solute particles do not settle out

22

Suspensions

Heterogeneous mixtures (blood)
Large, visible solutes settle out

23

Mixtures Vs. Compounds

Mixture:
-No chemical bonding between components
-Can be separated
-Heterogeneous or Homogeneous
Compound:
-Chemical bonding between components
-Can be separated
-All are homogeneous

24

Chemical Bonds

Energy relationships
Electrons can occupy up to 7 electron shells
Electrons in Valence Shell (outermost electron shell)
-have most potential energy
-are chemically reactive electrons

25

Chemically Inert Elements

Stable and unreactive
Valence shell fully occupied or contains eight electrons
Noble Gases

26

Chemically Reactive Elements

Valence shell not full
Tend to gain, lose, or share electrons (form bonds) with other atoms achieve stability

27

Types of Chemical Bonds (3)

Ionic
Covalent
Hydrogen

28

Ionic Bonds

Ions
-atoms gain or lose electrons and becomes charged
Transfer of electrons from one atom to another forms ions
-Anion (negative charge)
-- atoms gains at least one electron
-Cation (positive charge)
-- atoms loses at least one electron

29

Ionic Compounds

Most ionic compounds are salts
-when dry salts form crystals instead of individual molecules
Ex. NaCl (sodium chloride)

30

Covalent Bonds

Formed by sharing of two or more electrons
Allows each atom to fill its valence shell at least part of the time