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1

Cartilage

Not Bone

2

Skeletal Cartilage

Contains water, lends resiliency
Contains no blood vessels or nerves
Perichondrium surrounds
-Dense connective tissue girdle
--Contains blood vessels for nutrient delivery
All contain chondrocytes in lacunae and extracellular matrix

3

Skeletal Cartilage (3 Types)

Hyaline Cartilage
Elastic Cartilage
Fibrocartilage

4

Hyaline Cartilage

-Toughest
-Most abundant type
-Provides support/flexibility
-Collagen fibers only
-Articular and costal

5

Elastic Cartilage

-External Ear and epiglottis
-Similar to hyaline cartilage, more elastic fibers

6

Fibrocartilage

-Thick collagen fibers- has great tensile strength
-Intervertebral discs

7

Growth of Cartilage (3 Types)

Appositional Growth
Interstitial Growth
Calcification of Cartilage

8

Appositional Growth

External face of existing cartilage
-everything grows out

9

Interstitial Growth

Expanding cartilage from within

10

Calcification of Cartilage

-Occurs during normal bone growth
-Calcified cartilage is NOT bone
-Growth Plates close

11

Classification of Bones (2 Groups)

Location- Axial, Appendicular
Shape- Long, Short, Flat, Irregular

12

Axial

Head, neck, trunk

13

Appendicular

Arms, Legs

14

Long Bones

Longer than they are wide
Shaft and ends
Tibia, Fibula

15

Short Bones

Cube shaped bones
Sesamoid bones (within tendons, e.g., patella)
Toes

16

Flat Bones

Thin, flat, slightly curved
Ribs, Skull

17

Irregular Bones

Complicated shapes
Shoulder Blades, everything else

18

Functions of Bones (7 Functions)

Support
Protection
Movement
Mineral and Growth Factor Storage
Blood Cell Formation
Triglyceride (fat) Storage
Hormone Production

19

Support

Upright

20

Protection

Soft organs
-Skull
-Ribs

21

Movement

Muscles pull on bones

22

Mineral and Growth Factor Storage

Calcium and phosphorus, and growth factors reservoir

23

Blood Cell Formation

Red marrow cavity in certain bones

24

Triglyceride (fat) Storage

Bone cavities
-Energy source

25

Hormone Production

Osteocalcin
-Regulates bone formation
-Protection

26

Bones (3 Levels of Structure)

Organs
Contains different types of tissues
Three Levels of Structure
-Gross Anatomy
-Microscopic
-Chemical

27

Common components of all bones

Dense outer layer of compact bone
-Smooth and solid
Spongy inner core
-Trabeculae

28

Gross Anatomy of Bone

Bone textures
-Compact vs. Spongy

29

Compact Bone

Dense outer layer
Smooth and solid

30

Spongy (cancellous or trabecular)

Honeycomb of flat pieces of bone deep to compact called trabeculae