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1

Anatomy

Study of Structure
Subdivisions
-Gross or macroscopic
-Microscopic
-Developmental

2

To Study Anatomy

Mastery of anatomical terminology, Observation, Manipulation, Palpation, Auscultation (audio)

3

Physiology

Function of the Body
Subdivisions are the 11 Organ systems

4

To Study Physiology

Ability to focus at many levels
Basic Principle
Chemical principles

5

Anatomy and Physiology Connection

Inseparable
Function always reflects structure
What a structure can do depends on its specific form

6

Levels of Structural Organization

Chemical
Cellular
Tissue
Organ
Organ System
Organism

7

Necessary Life Functions

Maintaining Boundaries
Movement
Responsiveness
Digestion
Metabolism
Dispose of Wastes
Reproduction
Growth

8

Maintaining Boundaries

Boundary between internal and external environments; plasma membranes and skin

9

Movement (contraction)

of body parts (skeletal muscle)
Of substance (cardiac and smooth muscle)

10

Responsiveness

Ability to sense and respond to stimuli
Withdrawal reflex
Control of breathing rate

11

Digestion

Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs
Absorption of simple molecules into blood

12

Metabolism

All chemical reactions that occur in body cells
Catabolism and anabolism

13

Excretion

Removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion
Urea, Carbon Dioxide, Feces

14

Reproduction

Cellular division for growth or repair
Production of offspring

15

Growth

Increase in size of a body part or of organism

16

Interdependence of Body Cells

Humans are multicellular
- to function, must keep individual cells alive
-all cells depend on organ systems to meet their survival needs
All body function spread among different organ systems
Organ systems cooperate to maintain life

17

Integumentary System

Skin, nails, hair, Boundary, and protection

18

Skeletal System

Bones, joints,
Posture, framework,

19

Muscular System

Muscles, tendons
Posture, movement

20

Nervous System

Brain, Spinal, Nerves
Control System

21

Cardiovascular System

Heart, Blood Vessels
Transportation within the body; blood, oxygen

22

Lymphatic System

Red bone marrow, thymus, lymph node
Removes waste by taking the waste out of the blood vessels; immune system

23

Respiratory System

Lungs, Nasal Cavity, Trachea
Brings in oxygen, excretes carbon dioxide

24

Digestive System

Liver, Stomach, Intestine
Food source for energy; absorbs nutrients

25

Urinary System

Kidney, bladder
Regulates water and excretes wastes from body

26

Reproductive System (Female)
Reproductive System (Male)

Mammary Glands, Uterus, Ovary
Produce milk, and life
Testis, Scrotum, Penis
Produces sperm for offspring

27

Endocrine System

Thyroid, Pineal gland, Pancreas, Adrenal Gland
Secretes hormones that regulate growth, nutrient use by the body cells

28

Survival Needs

Nutrients
Oxygen
Water
Normal Body Temperature
Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure

29

Nutrients

Chemical for energy and cell building
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins

30

Oxygen

Essential for energy release (ATP production)